Research on U.S.
Students Abroad


A Bibliography
with Abstracts

Edited by
Henry D. Weaver

Council on International Educational Exchange
Education Abroad Program, University of California
Institute of International Education
National Association for Foreign Student Affairs

Research on U.S. Students Abroad:
A Bibliography with Abstracts

Research on U.S. Students Abroad:
A Bibliography with Abstracts

Edited by
Henry D. Weaver

Abstracts by
Barbara B. Burn, Jerry S. Carlson, JÅrgen C. Kempff,
Judith N. Martin, John Useem

Council on International Educational Exchange
Education Abroad Program, University of California
Institute of International Education
National Association for Foreign Student Affairs

Copyright 1989 by Henry Weaver. All rights reserved.
Printed in the United States of America.
ISBN 1-882036-01-8



Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1

Using this Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3

A Bibliography with Abstracts . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107



 The literature on study abroad by students from the United States is published in widely dispersed sources. 

Research on the effects of study abroad does not constitute a single coherent discipline. Rather it is an entity 

that can be studied from a variety of viewpoints including anthropology, education, psychology and sociology. 

	The attempt of this bibliography is two-fold. First it is an attempt to bring together a comprehensive

listing of studies from all disciplines about United States students studying abroad. Second, it is an attempt to 

abstract that literature and to set a framework for continued abstracting.  

	It is expected that the material will be updated about every two years. Corrections of this 

bibliography and citations of additional work are invited. Copies of papers to be added to the collection are

also invited. If possible include an abstract of the work. Contact Henry D. Weaver, Systemwide Office,

Education Abroad Program, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106.

	Thanks are given to the abstractors listed above with special thanks to JÅrgen Kemp for recording 

many of the articles and to Judith Martin for reviewing and correcting the final manuscript. Responsibility for 

all errors rests with the editor. 

Using this Bibliography


The bibliography is a listing of studies relating to study abroad by students from the United States. It is an attempt to cover all published reports as well as unpublished papers that have become available up through 1987. The studies have been divided into groups with symbols indicating the classification. The symbols are given in parenthesis at the end of each citation. The groups are the following: C Cross Cultural Issues E Evaluations G Guides I Impact Studies M Miscellaneous O General Overviews P Program Descriptions R Research T Theoretical Presentations About eighty-five percent of the papers have been collected in the library of the Education Abroad Program of the University of California in Santa Barbara. The numbers including the classification given in parenthesis after each citation indicate the file number in the Education Abroad Program library. Research scholars are invited to utilize this depository of research reports. Photocopies, if copyright laws permit, will be made available at cost to researchers in the field. Abstracts for the entries in this bibliography have been written by a group of scholars using the American National Standard for abstracts. The following people have done the abstracting and the author of each abstract is indicated at the end by initials: AUT Author BBB Barbara B. Burn JSC Jerry S. Carlson JCK JÅrgen C. Kempff JM Judith N. Martin JU John Useem HDW Henry D. Weaver No symbol Author of abstract unknown A number of papers have been included with less than normal information about the publisher, place of presentation, or other customary information. Since the numbers identify them in the Education Abroad Program library, it is hoped that they will still be useful to some scholars. The acronyms used in this bibliography to refer to organizations and publications are listed below: ACE American Council of Education 11 Dupont Circle, Suite 300 Washington, DC 20036 AFS AFS International/Intercultural Programs formerly American Field Service) 313 E. 43rd St. New York, NY 10017 CIEE Council on International Educational Exchange 205 E. 42nd St. New York, NY 10017 DAAD Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst (German Academic Exchange Service) 535 Fifth Avenue, Suite 1107 New York, NY 10017 EWC East-West Center Culture Learning Institute 1777 East-West Road Honolulu, HI 96848 IIE Institute of International Education 809 United Nations Plaza New York, NY 10017 ISECSI International Society for Educational, Cultural and Scientific Interchange (Bulletin for International Interchanges is currently published at AFS International/Cultural Programs) NAFSA National Association for Foreign Student Affairs 1860 19th St. NW Washington, DC 20009 SIETAR Society for Intercultural Education, Training and Research 1414 22nd Street Washington, DC 20037

Research on U.S. Students Abroad: A Bibliography with Abstracts

____________________________________________________________ Abrams, I. (1965). The student abroad. In S. Baskin (Ed.), Higher education:
Some newer developments (pp. 78-103). New York: McGraw-Hill. [O-002]
Abrams, I. (1965). Why study abroad. Occasional Papers on International
Educational Exchange, 4. New York: CIEE. [O-093]
Abrams, I. (1979). The impact of Antioch education through experience
abroad. Alternative Higher Education, 3, 176-187. [E-001] Participants in a program of living, studying, and working abroad in the 1960s consider this, in retrospect, to have been one of the most important experiences they ever had. A preliminary analysis of questionnaire data indicates, along with academic outcomes, a significant impact upon subsequent behavior. Educational and job decisions were influenced, as well as thinking about values and American identity. It appears that the more an overseas program encourages involvement in other cultures in a variety of roles, with work experience prominent among them, the more we can expect enduring attitudinal and behavioral outcomes.[AUT]
Abrams, I. (1980, November). Some reflections on historical research and
international interchange. Paper presented at the U.S.-German Conference on Research on Exchanges, Bonn, West Germany. [R-001] Prepared for Conference on Research and International Exchange, Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany, 1980. A state-of-the-art report on the need for historically-informed students on specific characteristics of exchanges in conjunction with segments of societies. The briefly described cases in point include subjects that would enrich the work of historians. More specifically the particular illustrations are: the mobility of recent generation among scientists between Europe and America, the contribution of traveling scientists and related technicians to the industrializing countries during the nineteenth century; the modernization of traditional societies in the light of historical parallels, the wandering scholars, and revolutions around the world. Each of them exemplifies the impact of educational exchange upon societies.[JU]
Abrams, I., & Abrams-Reis, C. (1979, September). Summary of the Carl
Duisberg Gesellschaft-Antioch survey. Unpublished manuscript, Antioch University, Ohio. [E-003] This summary is the result of a survey made of participants from the Federal Republic of Germany in the International Adult Work-Study Program for Businessmen and Engineers at Antioch College conducted between 1958 and 1971.These participants were recruited in cooperation with the Carl Duisberg Gesellschaft (CDG) of Cologne, and the summary was done for the occasion of their 30th anniversary celebration in 1979. The U.S. experience overwhelmingly influenced the careers of the 36 participants; several mentioned the personal rather than career gains; others mentioned problems which arose upon their return; language learning was overwhelmingly the highest rated aspect with the "general experience in the U.S." rated second in overall importance. In summarizing the total experience, 20 said that it was "one of the most important experiences of [their] lives." [JCK]
Abrams, I., & Arnold, D. B. (1967). American college and international education.
In New Dimensions in Higher Education, no. 27. Washington, DC: U.S. Office of Education, Division of Higher Education. [O-003] This review of literature describes and analyzes 1) the nature of international education, 2) the course of development that brought curriculum offerings to their current level, and 3) the participants in international education-the faculty members, the students, the government, and the private agencies interested in stimulating international education. The author defines the area of international education as "that which is taught, studied, and learned in subject matter that reaches beyond the national culture or in a learning situation outside it." They also voice dissatisfaction with the term "nonwestern studies," regarding it as unsatisfactory because it could be viewed as representing only a division between "east" and "west" rather than suggesting a world view. The two levels of courses offered in American liberal arts colleges are analyzed. These are discussed in the following categories: 1) upper division specialized courses in international relations, language and area studies, comparative studies, topical studies, and international studies, and 2) lower- division general education courses in world civilization, integrated area studies, and contemporary world issues. Discussions are given of 1) the specialized kind of faculty needed, 2) foreign students on American campuses, 3) American undergraduates abroad, 4) private organizations interested in encouraging international study programs in American undergraduate education, 5) the International Education Act of 1966 and other legislation to provide funds, and 6) the role of government agencies that distribute funds. In addition, the author discusses needed research on the curriculum, the faculty, and the students.
Abrams, I., & Duewell, K. (1982, March). Lessons of the first German-American
exchange professorships. Paper presented at the joint meeting of the International Studies Association and International Society for Educational, Cultural, and Scientific Interchanges, Cincinnati, OH. [P-001] A paper on the German-American Project on Exchange Research. The purpose was to consider urgent issues of German-American cultural relations and to develop new research concepts and initiatives in order to improve these exchanges. The present study of the early exchange professorships represents a cooperative effort of the German and American historians who took part in these conferences to contribute to this undertaking from the approach of their own academic discipline.[JCK]
Abrams, I., & Hatch, W. R. (1960). Study abroad. In New Dimensions in Higher
Education, no. 6. Washington, DC: U.S. Office of Education, Division of Higher Education. [O-004] Study abroad programs and awareness of the importance of foreign study to world affairs and international education grew rapidly in the 1950s, with, however, little coordination in the establishment and administration of programs or agreement on some of the important educational issues involved. A 1960 conference held at Mount Holyoke college focused on those concerns. Then-stated aims of study abroad students' advancement in their specialized fields, general education, and international understanding were implemented through widely varying programs, falling under four main models: year, semester, and summer study abroad, and the study tour. These models are discussed with illustrative examples. Little systematic evaluation has been carried out to assess if program goals are attained, so is a fruitful area for cross-cultural research of the academic year abroad. Problems in the field relate to quality, finance, integration of study abroad with the home campus educational program, and future needs and responsiveness to them in new program development.[BBB]
Abrams, I., & Heller, F. H. (1978). Evaluating academic programs abroad: The
Council on International Educational Exchange Project. Occasional Papers on International Educational Exchange, 21. New York: CIEE. [E-002] This paper was prepared by the authors following their participation in a CIEE evaluation project in Germany and Austria during May 1975. It summarizes the history of CIEE's activity in the area of evaluation of overseas educational programs for U.S. students and identifies some of the issues related to study abroad observed by those who, since 1972, have been involved in the CIEE evaluation team projects.[JCK]
Abrams-Reis, C. (1980). Through the looking glass and back again: What
happens after return home? ISECSI Bulletin of International Interchanges, 15, 9-12. [O-001] The paper tries to find an answer to the question of why the experience of those millions of Americans, opinion-makers, teachers, politicians, who have traveled, worked, and studied abroad, does not filter through to join with other stimuli to shape career, family, community, and political life. The author reviews some of the more prominent literature, finding evidence that suggests that a lack of support during the re-entry period may have significant influence on how experience abroad is perceived and integrated in the student's future life. For example, in one study of those who remembered their sojourn most favorably, over two-thirds reported that they had received help during re-entry. Of those who remembered their sojourn least favorably, almost the same proportion reported that they had not been helped. In order to draw any definite conclusions from these responses, the author calls for more data and more information before one can determine any direct correlation between the circumstances of the re-entry period and the acquisition of world-minded attitudes that endure.[JCK]
Adler, N. (1976). Growthful re-entry theory. Unpublished manuscript, University
of California at Los Angeles, Graduate School of Management. [T-001]
Adler, P. S. (1974). Beyond cultural identity: Reflections upon cultural and
multicultural man. In R.W. Brislin (Ed.), Topics in Culture Learning, 2 (pp. 23-40. Honolulu, HI: East-West Center. [O-006] The author presents a social-psychological theory explaining how individuals develop a multicultural perspective. He differentiates this perspective from the development of a monocultural perspective, emphasizing that multicultural persons have more fluid personalities, are always undergoing personal change, and adapt to values and reality of any cultural situation. Also presents several case studies of individuals identified as "multicultural" (e.g., Norman O. Brown, Carlos Castaneda). Finally, he discusses some of the difficulties of being multicultural including, suffering from a loss of a sense of personal authenticity, risk of being identified as a dilettante, susceptible to confusing the profound and the unimportant.[JM]
Allaway, W. H. (1951). Study opportunities for American students in France.
Unpublished master's thesis, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL. [P-002] This report is the recognition of the need for some type of overall orientation paper for students planning to study in France. As such, it is divided into three principal parts: (a) A discussion of the French university system generally, with certain information that is common to all universities; (b) An explanation of what the American student finds in five of the most important universities in France, i.e., Paris, Aix-Marseille, Grenoble, Lyon, and Strasbourg, with special treatment of summer school programs; (c) A discussion of various research projects which need to be carried on in this field. This report fulfills three major purposes: (1) Provides material of practical interest to the American student planning to study abroad; (2) Attempts to point out problems of American students and offer suggestions for handling them; (3) Attempts to point out important areas of needed research on the total problem of Americans studying in foreign universities.[JCK]
Allaway, W. H. (1957). Development of international understanding in foreign
students at the University of Kansas (Doctoral dissertation, University of Denver, 1957). Dissertation Abstracts International, 17, 13, p. 59. [O-007]
Allaway, W. H. (1980, November). The international committee for the study of
educational exchange: A brief summary of its research program. Paper presented at the U.S.-German Conference on Research on Exchanges, Bonn, West Germany. [R-002] A brief summary of two principal studies (Klineberg, 1967, International Educational Exchange; Klineberg & Hull, 1979, At a Foreign University), developed under the aegis of the ICSEE, which have led to new insights into cross-cultural education and reaffirmed earlier hypotheses. The initial study examined the parameters of the problem in each of the countries concerned, examining the nature of educational exchange activities, the ways in which universities organize to further educational exchange, and some of the implications of these activities for institutional and national policy. The second major study examined a significant aspect of the exchange experience: how do students introduced into another culture cope with the situation and become productive in spite of the problems presented by the cross-cultural experience? An attempt was also made to identify theoretical concepts needing development, as well as an exploration of the administrative implications of the findings.[JCK]
Allaway, W. H. (1986). Perspectives on the crisis in UNESCO: UNESCO and
international cooperation in higher education. Unpublished paper, University of California at Santa Barbara. [O-034] This speech proposes that there are three channels for cooperation in higher education related to UNESCO's goals and that this meeting should agree on needed steps to draw American higher education into a stronger commitment to international cooperation. The three channels for active cooperation are directly tied to UNESCO, each in a different way. The first is the European Center for Higher Education; the second, the United Nations University, which is an autonomous agency of the United Nations, but with important ties to UNESCO; the third channel is the International Association of Universities, a nongovernmental organization which was founded with the assistance of UNESCO and continues to have close ties, including office facilities in UNESCO House in Paris.[JCK]
Allaway, W. H. (1987). Hallmarks of successful programs in the developing
world: The University of California. Occasional Papers on International Educational Exchange, 22, 6-9. New York: CIEE. [O-043] This paper touches on a few of the considerations the author feels to be of greatest significance in developing a successful educational exchange program between an American university and a university in a developing country. In over twenty years of relationship between the Education Abroad Program of the University of California and universities in the developing world, certain hallmarks have evolved for success in developing opportunities for American students to study abroad. Most of this experience has been in providing a program for a full academic year, although each of the hallmarks cited are equally applicable to shorter term programs: 1) the program should be based in a host university and, where possible, utilize the regular curriculum of the university; 2) the program should include reciprocal exchange activities; 3) the program should be directed by a faculty member of the home or sending university; 4) student selection and orientation should be handled with care; 5) where relevant, the program should emphasize language acquisition; and 6) where feasible, the program should include an experiential component.[JCK]
Allaway, W. H., & Koff, S.P. (1965). The overseas director. Occasional Papers
on International Educational Exchange, 2. New York: CIEE. [O-035]
Allaway, W. H., & Shorrock, H. C. (Eds.). (1985). Dimensions of international
higher education. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. [O-008] The dynamics of academic exchange are explored by a multidisciplinary group of scholars in this book. Contributors from ten countries examine such issues as undergraduate versus graduate study abroad and the purpose and effect of sending students to foreign countries. Drawing on their experiences as administrators and faculty in exchange programs, the authors discuss faculty exchange, collaborative research, and linkages across national boundaries. The relative advantages of academic exchange in different fields are examined, and cross-cultural perspectives from Asia, Europe, the Middle East, and Africa are compared. The consensus of the contributors is that universities are a vital means of breaking down the barriers of nationalism by promoting a constant and free exchange of scholarship.[JCK]
American Council on Education. (1984). Guidelines for college and university
linkages abroad. Washington, DC: ACE, Division of International Education. [M-015] These brief guidelines were prepared in response to requests from institutions of higher education in the United States and abroad which are interested in developing formal contacts with an institution in another country. The purpose of the guidelines is to organize the process and to call attention to salient points within it. The guidelines can then be adapted to suit the needs and purpose of individual institutions.[JCK]
Amir, Y. (1969). Contact hypothesis in ethnic relations. Psychological Bulletin, 71(5), 319-342. [C-029] Arpan, J. S., Geer, M., McCracken, P., & Wind, J. (1988). Hallmarks of
successful international business programs. Occasional Papers on International Educational Exchange, 25. New York: CIEE. [O-108]
Arum S. (1987). International Education: What is it? A taxonomy of international
education of U.S. universities. Occasional Papers on International Educational Exchange, 23. New York: CIEE. [O-106]
Barber, E. G. (1983). The impact of foreign educational experience on individuals.
ISECSI Bulletin of International Interchanges, 20, 7-10. [I-001] This paper deals with the impact a foreign educational experience has on the individual, and points out that assessments of impacts or outcomes that are valid by the standards of social science are not easy to produce. Optimally, the author claims, this would require objective measures of knowledge and skills, before and after the foreign educational experience; of attitudes, again before and after; and of expectations and outcomes. Furthermore, valid studies require control groups. The author also points out that even the Rockefeller study, and many more, do not meet the criteria of social scientific rigor; they are all basically retrospective assessments without the benefit of control groups. Rigor and sophistication are important and the need for studies that illuminate and improve policy and practice is stressed.[JCK]
Barber, E. G. (1983). Some asymmetries in the impact of foreign educational
experience. ISECSI Bulletin of International Interchanges, 19, 11-15. [I-002] The article first points out that there is far from complete symmetry in the objectives and consequences of foreign educational experiences when those involved are, on the one hand, American undergraduates, graduate students, or faculty who are primarily learning about other countries, and on the other hand, students from the developing countries at different academic levels, who are acquiring knowledge and skills relevant to the economic development of their countries. Even East/West educational exchanges differ significantly in the objectives of the "East" and the "West," as is evident from the concentration of the students from the U.S.S.R. and Eastern Europe in engineering and natural science and those from the U.S. in the social sciences and the humanities. Difference in objectives is manifest also in the terms of sponsorship of educational experiences in developed and developing countries. The movement of students from developing to developed countries with funding by governments or foundations is conditional on assurances that students will return to their country once their studies have been completed. Failure to return is deplored and pejoratively labeled as brain drain. In concluding, the author stresses that, for a satisfactory analysis of the impacts of foreign educational experiences and for the assessment of the success of those experiences, it is essential not only to identify different types of impact, but also to keep in mind that certain consequences have different salience and different significance in the North or West on the one hand, and in the South and East, on the other. If there is recognition of asymmetries in objectives, appropriate judgments about success or failure may be more likely to be made.[JCK]
Barber, E. G., & Ilchman, W. (1979, September). International studies review:
A staff study. New York: Ford Foundation. [M-001] The report is a collaborative effort of NEH and the Ford Foundation, who share support of the ACLS/SSRC Joint Committees. This report assesses the prospects of International Studies, especially in major research universities, and the relationship of the availability of national research awards to those prospects. As such, the review is concerned with various aspects of supply and demand: the supply of people knowledgeable about foreign areas and the academic demand for their knowledge; the demand for opportunities to develop and sustain such competence and the supply of those opportunities. Also analyzed were the major individual awards programs in order to find out how many awards they make available directly or indirectly for international research but also some of the characteristics of the recipients of the awards. Findings suggest that there are too few postdoctoral research awards and that both pre-doctoral and postdoctoral awards are too small. The report makes 18 recommendations.[JCK]
Barrows, T.S., Klein, S.F., & Clark, J.L.D. (1980). What students know about
their world. Change, 12(4), 10-17, 67. [I-003] As a significant part of its Education and the World View project, the Council on Learning asked the Educational Testing Service to develop and conduct a national assessment of what college students really know and perceive about global relationships and to measure their comprehension of current global complexities. This particular report deals only with college seniors. Taken together, the survey results indicate that global understanding is not a single entity but must be thought of as having three principal components: knowledge, affect, and language. The knowledge factor is defined largely by scores on the knowledge test as well as a habit of acquiring international news through newspaper reading. Affect is defined primarily by several attitudinal measures that are predominantly political in nature. The language factor is defined by foreign language abilities, learning experiences, and attitudes toward foreign language study. Seniors reported greater exposure to world problems and issues in high school than in college classes. Quite surprising on first observation, the authors note, was the absence of any substantial relationship between language proficiency and level of knowledge of world issues. The authors futhermore underscore the clear distinction and lack of overlap between knowledge and language, noting that language variables did not relate to the knowledge component and that the knowledge score did not relate to the language component. Affect, on the other hand, seemed to overlap moderately with knowledge and, to a lesser extent, with language, as indicated by those variables common to knowledge and affect and to knowledge and affect, respectively. Low-level association between language and knowledge was due to links through affect and the relationships between the knowledge test score and self-assessed language ability was essentially zero.[JCK]
Barrutia, R. (1971). Study abroad. Modern Language Journal, 55, 232-234.
[O-009] In the face of increasing U.S. preoccupation with domestic concerns, the failure of congress to fund the International Education Act, and reduced funding for Fulbright and other programs of educational and cultural exchange, and a turning away from the international to the domestic scene by foundations, it is more important than ever to maintain our investment in international education. Study abroad is more effective for foreign language learning than the same or a longer period of language study in the U.S., strengthens students' ability to engage in independent study, and increases their self-understanding and broadens their value system. While it is therefore not surprising that there are so many programs for study, work, or travel abroad, they are deficient in quality and diversity. American higher education is far too provincial and does not produce enough graduates knowledgeable about the rest of the world and international issues. Credentialed and employed language teachers should be required to have at least two semesters of study abroad. Federal and other funding should support foreign language study abroad, and relevant professional associations should be advocates of this.[BBB]
Barrutia, R. (1979). Some new roles for study abroad in American education.
ADFL Bulletin, 11(2), 15-18. [O-010] Given the specific problem of inadequate second-language acquisition in America, combined with our massive inertia and our traditional national provincialism, the author asks what our options are for catching up with a world in an accelerating stage of second- and third-language acquisition. To cope with the problem of closing the many gaps in our international relations throughout the world, what is most needed is a combination of language dominance, cultural awareness, and knowledge of the area, the author contends. The article then takes a close look at items of new interest such as the reestablishing of foreign language requirements, a President's Commission on Foreign Language and International Studies, the nationwide expansion of bilingual programs, a more positive attitude about foreign language education in general, and, in particular, the expansion of education-abroad programs. In conclusion, he offers various recommendations to help study-abroad programs to carry out their roles more successfully.[JCK]
Barrutia, R., Larkin, B.D., Prator, C.H., & Weaver, H.D. (1980). Final report
of the foreign language review committee. Santa Barbara, CA: University of California, Education Abroad Program.[E-005] A self-evaluation by the system-wide Foreign-Language Review Committee examining the various policies pertaining to the role of foreign languages in the Education Abroad Program. Matters that were dealt with in particular: (a) Objectives and priorities; (b)Language requirements and the selection of students; (c) Pre- departure preparation; (d) Testing and placement; (e) ILP's and regular-year classes; (f) Instruction in culture; (g) Out-of-class language learning; (h) Administrative considerations; (i) Program evaluation; (j) Relations with UC academic departments. [JCK]
Basic facts on study abroad. (1987). New York: CIEE, IIE, NAFSA (published
biannually). [G-011]
Baskin, S. (Ed.). (1965). Higher education: Some newer developments. New
York: McGraw-Hill. [O-011] There is little question that study abroad has already become an established part of the American educational landscape. The growth of this movement has been spectacular. In 1950 there were only six programs through which undergraduates could earn credit abroad during the academic year. In 1960 over fifty institutions offered such programs, with an enrollment of over fifteen hundred students. In 1963-1964 there were over 120 programs of many different types, with more than twice as many students enrolled as in 1960. These figures do not include over one hundred summer programs for academic credit organized by colleges and universities, in which over two thousand students participated. By 1964 over half of our liberal arts colleges were either administering their own programs or else allowing their students to earn credit in programs organized by others. But the movement is still young. The problems are many, the potentialities are barely realized, and the full implications for campus education have hardly been grasped. This chapter presents an overview of developments in programs of study abroad. It deals with the objectives these programs seek to achieve, the kinds of programs that have evolved, problems that need to be faced, and the potential these programs hold for improving the quality of the total educational experience. Particular attention is given to the problem and the need for maintaining standards in these programs if we are to develop programs of quality and strength.[JCK]
Batchelder, D., & Warner, E.G. (Eds.). (1977). Beyond experience: The
experience approach to cross-cultural education. Brattleboro, VT: The Experiment Press. [C-001] The eight articles in the "ideas" section describe various conceptual approaches to the design of cross-cultural education and training from an experiential point of view. Their emphasis is on developing a rationale that integrates the affective and cognitive domains of learning as they relate to the individual learner. "Seven Concepts in Cross-Cultural Interaction: A Training Design" by T. Gochenour and A. Janeway offers a basic conceptual outline of the training done with graduate students at the School for International Training. These concepts outline the process an individual goes through upon entering another culture and how the development of personal awareness contributes to developing meaningful relationships in other cultures. "Focus on Process: An Examination of the Learning and Teaching of Communicative Competence" by A. E. Fantini approaches language acquisition as a process and identifies prominent stages of learning. Fantini draws upon sociolinguistic research to argue that language should be taught in a social context emphasizing the appropriateness of language use. The learner is required to be both a linguist and ethnographer. Other articles in this section deal with designing experiential exercises, cross-cultural approaches to the teaching of American Studies in a college setting, and the application of experiential techniques to field situations.
Battsek, M. (1962). A practical analysis of some aspects of study abroad. Journal
of General Education, 13, 225-242. [O-012] A number of practical considerations should be taken more into account with respect to study abroad by American undergraduates in Europe. Program objectives should be carefully defined. The chief one should be academic, and U.S. students should not expect to be able to study subjects offered in the U.S. which are not "academic" subjects in Europe. While intellectual goals unrelated to a student's study program are important, it is unrealistic to assume that U.S. students will have more time to pursue them in Europe than at home. Study abroad program objectives should also include learning about the foreign society and culture and personal development. Detailed program planning is essential on what students study abroad, e.g., European universities do not offer general liberal arts programs, so course syllabi should be obtained in advance and information provided on the teaching and evaluation approaches of the host institutions. The establishment abroad of "branches" of U.S. institutions with home university faculty and courses has little real educational value. Program timing, duration, and the integration of U.S. students in the European university must also be planned. On-arrival orientation as well as pre-departure are essential. Serious rather than rushed travel through Europe's capital cities is urged. Also important to program planning are student selection, foreign language provision, student supervision, and program evaluation.[BBB]
Baty, R., & Dold, E. (1977). Cross cultural homestays: An analysis of college
students responses after living in an unfamiliar culture. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 1(1), 61-76. [I-051] The purpose of the present exploratory study was to investigate the effects of the Johnston College cross- cultural homestay program upon student attitudes and health. During the four years of the program, 59 students lived for a period of one month in unfamiliar cultures in the Southwest and Mexico. Subjects for this study were 45 undergraduate students with a median age of 19 who came from relatively affluent family backgrounds. A one-group pretest, post-test design was used employing five instruments: Omnibus Personality Inventory (OPI), Community Insight Questionnaire (CIQ), Semantic Differential (SD), Cornell Medical Index (CMI), Mini-mult (MM). Participating students resembled, in most respects, other Johnston College students. It was concluded that the experience was more unsettling for the men students than it was for the women students. Future research was recommended to determine the extent to which there are sex differences in cross-cultural adaption.[AUT]
Baumann, C. (1975). Advisor's guide to study abroad. Occasional Papers on
International Educational Exchange, 19. New York: CIEE. [G-001] This guide for study abroad is designed for American college students, and addresses the following issues: 1) the differences between American and foreign university systems and the lack of language proficiency in American students wishing to study abroad; 2) the alternatives to enrolling in a foreign university; 3) the advantages of American college and university programs abroad; 4) criteria to be used in selecting a program sponsored by an American institution; and 5) the availability of financial aid. A list of sources of information about study and travel abroad concludes the guide.
Bicknese, G. (1974). Study abroad: Parts 1 and 2. Foreign Language Annals,
7, 325-345. [O-013] Little systematic research has been done regarding the effect of study abroad on American students, and few criteria for the success of programs have been established. As the director of the Millersville Year in Marburg (1963-1966), this writer took three separate polls of the participants: 1) to test the psychological impact objectively at the beginning and end of each year, 2) to register subjective impressions that surfaced at the conclusion of the program, and 3) to ascertain the students' matured views one year after their return to America. These evaluations, completed in 1967, are as meaningful now as they were then. The profession has yet to act on many of the recommendations. The students corrected their preconceived ideas of Europe; they became fluent in German and familiar with the culture; and they matured as scholars and persons. All experienced culture shock, and most became, at least temporarily, Germanophiles. The following major conclusions were drawn from this study: 1) integration into the host society should be gradual; 2) the "target- language-only" rule should be based on voluntary cooperation; and 3) the greatest benefits are achieved after the first five months abroad. Because study abroad could become a vital tool in furthering the study of languages and culture, more research is urgently needed.[AUT]
Billigmeier, R.H., & Forman, D. (1975). Goettingen in retrospect. International
Review of Education, 21(2), 217-230. [E-006] Participant assessment is one of the processes which can be used to evaluate the success of educational exchange programs. This study was conducted in 1972 with University of California students who attended the University of Goettingen, Federal Republic of Germany, during the 1965-66 academic year. Participants were asked about their subsequent use of language, as well as their assessment of the academic, intellectual, personal, social and cultural dimensions of the program. This paper reports the results of the Goettingen questionnaire and, hopefully, contributes to a better understanding of the kinds of enduring student benefits that can result from an educational experience abroad.[AUT]
Board of Foreign Scholarships. (1971). A quarter century: American adventure
in academic exchange. Washington, DC: Author. [O-031] This report covers the laws behind the programs, the focus on academic merit, and the foreign relations component, among others. Final thoughts can be found on p. 66. [JCK]
Bochner, S. (1977). The mediating man and cultural diversity. In R.W. Brislin
(Ed.), Culture learning: Concepts, applications, and research. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press. [C-019]
Bower, T. J. (1973). Effects of short-term study abroad on student attitudes
(Doctoral dissertation, Colorado University, 1973). Dissertation Abstracts International, 34, 4772-A. [I-004] The author assessed attitude change among 12 college juniors and seniors who spent fourteen weeks at an American college center in Alexandria, Egypt. The author measured change by the results of the instruments: (a) "This I Believe," and (b) "Conceptual Systems." Included in the measurement instuments are the following dimensions and factors: 1) openess, 2) candor, 3) externability, 4) evaluativeness, 5) optimism, 6) cynicism, 7) simplicity, 8) Divine fate control, 9) need for structure and order, 10) interpersonal aggression, 11) anomie. Correlates of attitude change were drawn from personal data from students as well as their scores on "Personal Opinion Questionnaire" and "Profile of Values" (Allport, Vernon, and Lindzey). Results indicated that more change took place on all dimensions and factors than no change. Change occurred near equally positively and negatively. Considerable less positive change registered than a combination of negative change and no change. The amount of positive change compared to negative change and no change appears to be so small as to challenge assumptions of study abroad which argue tendencies toward openness, flexibility, and sensitivity to change are fostered by study abroad.[JM]
Bowman, J. E. (1967). Research in educational exchange problems: Step
one-Defining our problem. Occasional Papers on International Educational Exchange, 14. New York: CIEE. [R-033]
Bowman, J. E. (1987). Educating American undergraduates abroad: The
development of study abroad programs by American colleges and universities. Occasional Papers on International Educational Exchange, 24. New York: CIEE. [O-107]
Boyan, D.R. (1981). U.S. students abroad: College-sponsored programs.
World Higher Education Communique, 3(3), 22-23. [G-002] This update on study abroad programs deals with the regional distribution of students in U.S. college- sponsored study-abroad programs during 1978/79. Of the 813 programs reported during that period, 594 (72.8%) sent students to Europe. The second largest set of programs, those sending students to Asia, included 83 programs (10.2% of all programs). There were 66 programs to Latin America and 21 reporting a focus on Africa. Under the worldwide category, 46 programs were reported (5.7% of all programs).The number of students in programs in Latin America increased by 58.8% while those in Europe recorded a slight rise of 6% over the two academic year periods 1977-78 to 1978-79. The numbers in the remaining five regions decreased. The summary list of fields of study shows that social science is offered by more programs (52.1%) than any other field. The humanities is the second largest (45.4%) field of study, showing a dramatic 92.2% increase from 167 programs in 1977-78 to 321 in 1978-79. Decreases were reported in the number of programs offering science, health, and agriculture. Various tables support the statistics.[JCK]
Bresee, D. E. (1985). Exchange program teenagers compare life in Denmark
and the USA. Occasional Papers in Intercultural Learning, 10, 1-22. New York: AFS. [C-006] Following an internship with Youth for Understanding in Denmark in 1984, the author interviewed 16 Danes and 14 Americans who were on that program in 1983-84. The purpose was to identify and describe cross- cultural differences as perceived and experienced by these exchange students. Both the Danes and Americans were aged 14 through 19. They came from and were placed in a variety of rural, urban, and suburban locations, primarily with families of average to above average incomes. While this study does not claim to represent all Danish or American youth or exchange program participants, it is based on an in-depth exploration of 30 sojourners' views of their experiences. As such, it may be seen as illustrative of experiences within the context of an intercultural homestay program. While this study does not claim to represent all Americans, Danes, or exchange students, findings described could be valuable in a number of ways. At the very least, the exploration of these students' exchange experiences provides a portrait of two different cultures. Beyond that, it provides insight into the impact of cultural differences on sojourners, the kinds of impressions and changes they experience, and the overall course of the sojourn. In this sense, it is relevant beyond the context of Denmark, the U.S., and particular programs. Many of the important findings of this study are particularly salient issues during adolescence, such as relative societal and parental restrictions. Adolescence is also a particularly important time for exploring values and developing one's views toward relationships. It would be helpful for those involved with exchanges among teenagers, the author notes, to understand this on two levels. One is understanding adolescence in terms of general developmental issues. The other is being aware of the particular teenage culture of each country in question, since that is what the exchange students in secondary school and family contexts will most directly experience.[JCK]
Brislin, R.W. (1980, November). Outcomes, human relations, and contributions
to task effectiveness as key variables in educational exchange. Paper presented at the U.S.-German Conference on Research on Exchanges, Bonn, West Germany. [C-005] An agenda for research on study abroad is set forth. This includes research on effects on individuals, negative outcomes and how to cope with them, human relations in cross-cultural studies, and relating educational exchange to task-oriented goals.[BBB]
Brislin, R.W. (1981). Cross-cultural encounters: Face to face interaction. New
York: Pergamon Press. [C-002]
Brislin, R.W., & Pedersen, P. (1976). Cross-cultural orientation programs. New
York: Gardner Press. [C-004] This book deals with orientation methods designed to improve relationships among people from various cultures and study abroad. The book is based on three assumptions: 1) contact with others helps us see ourselves and become more tolerant of other views; for this to be accomplished, careful planning is important; 2) Contact with other cultures is unavoidable. The only question is the mode of interaction; 3) We can learn about ourselves as we learn how others see us. The book contains six chapters. These cover the rationale for cross-cultural orientation, the content of various cross-cultural training programs, descriptions of audiences for cross-cultural training, program evaluation, and guidelines for program organization.[BBB]
Burn, B.B. (1980). Expanding the international dimensions of higher
education. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. [O-014] This study was greatly aided by a Carnegie Council task force to consider major issues such as international education in perspective, recent social and educational changes, international education at the undergraduate level, foreign language study, the role of American universities in development assistance, and several more.[JCK]
Burn, B.B. (1980, November). International faculty exchanges. Paper
presented at the U.S-German Conference on Research on Exchanges, Bonn, West Germany. [P-003] The international exchange of faculty as discussed in this paper refers to higher education teachers and researchers spending time for professional purposes, typically a semester or academic year, in another country. Such exchanges in principle benefit the individuals involved, their home institutions, the institutions they are affiliated with while abroad, and the wider goals of international understanding. More subtle contributions of international faculty exchanges include the "internalization" of faculty who participate in them. International faculty exchanges between higher education institutions in the developed and developing worlds may offer more seemingly concrete benefits than those confined to the developed world. They can help meet urgent staffing needs in countries where the higher education demand outstrips the national capacity to meet it in terms of trained faculty. In view of the important contribution which international faculty exchanges have made to advancing research, encouraging new modes of teaching, diversifying faculty at higher education institutions, strengthening the international network of scholars, internationalizing the content of and perspectives towards teaching in most disciplines, and in general maintaining faculty vitality, it is surprising that so little systematic research has been attempted in order to document these contributions.[JCK]
Burn, B.B. (1980). Research on international interchanges. Recommendations
from the President's Commission experience. Unpublished manuscript, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA. [R-003] The White House Executive Order of April 1978 which authorized the establishment of the President's Commission on Foreign Language and International Studies made no mention of international interchanges. The focus of its mandate was educational programs in the schools, colleges, and universities in this country and the job market for those who concentrate on foreign language and international studies in higher education. The President's Commission wanted not only to mine available knowledge and experience, but also to add to it in order to make the most persuasive case possible in the public and political arenas for whatever action and support the field requires. To this end the Commission joined forces with Then one-year old Fulbright Alumni Association to undertake a survey of the contribution of the Fulbright experience to the professional and personal lives of former American Fulbright grantees. The President's Commission did not present any concrete recommendations for research on international interchange. But its examination of this field affirmed the need for more research, especially on research and study abroad. Excerpts from the Commission's report reflect its emphasis on international exchanges as a means to strengthen foreign language study, train researchers and scholars, and advance our knowledge of other nations. But overseas opportunities for college and high school teachers and students and positive experience for foreign students and scholars in the U.S. were also regarded as important by the Commission. This paper has mostly not discussed foreign language study in relation to research on international interchange. However, among the major implications for research of the work of the Commission is the urgent need for research on the contribution of study abroad on the motivation for foreign language study, to the achievement of foreign language proficiency, to strengthen the teaching ability of American foreign language teachers, and to developing more effective methodologies in foreign language teaching.[JCK]
Burn, B.B. (1980). Study abroad and international exchanges. American
Academy of Political and Social Science, 449, 129-140. [O-016] International educational exchange was a field of major concern to the President's Commission of Foreign Language and International Studies because of its contribution to research and scholarship on other countries, to foreign language learning, and to the international education of our citizens. Despite their importance, exchanges involving high school students and teachers remain distressingly limited and should be expanded. Although major federal funding of study abroad by American undergraduates is not likely, this understanding of other cultures. The more than one-quarter million foreign students in American colleges and universities should be tapped much more as a resource for intercultural learning. Teaching and especially research abroad for faculty is essential to U.S. competence in international studies; federal funding for it through the Fulbright and other programs has seriously eroded and should be significantly increased. Scholarly exchanges should in the future be more collaborative, based on reciprocity and on the principle of equality between U.S. and foreign higher education institutions. [AUT]
Burn, B.B. (1981). Foreign language and international studies: Impact and
unmet agenda of the Perkins Commission. Unpublished manuscript, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA. [I-005] The report produced a great number of recommendations and failed to set priorities among its recommendations. Among areas of some achievement are wider agreement on who foreign languages should be taught to and measured by competency standards; general education should require an international (preferably nonwestern) component; international education should infuse rather than be an add-on in school curricula; undergraduate international studies should be strengthened, preferably on an interdisciplinary basis and involving professional disciplines; meeting national needs for specialized training in international/area studies remains an urgent priority and is a continuing and expensive process; international education exchanges make a vital contribution to international education, especially in terms of cross-cultural sensitivity and scholarly advancement; community groups in international education fields need to identify and collaborate in working towards a common agenda; and finally, there is an important role for a national organization with broad support which can articulate and give visibility and leadership to national-and local-requirements in international education and foreign affairs expertise. Neglected or not yet achieved in the implementation of Perkins Commission recommendations are: getting a handle on how to affect change (K-12), especially more collaboration between foreign language and social studies teachers; identifying and meeting the need for foreign language training for numbers of people, especially in professional fields outside the formal educational system and setting up structures to meet this need; persuading area studies centers (their students seem to be getting the message) that national needs for international expertise call for a stronger orientation of area studies towards professional fields, especially business, and collaboration between them; much more support for undergraduate international studies; a greater recognition of the contribution of international exchanges in cross-cultural knowledge and commitment; a greater appreciation by the federal government, especially defense and the intelligence agencies, that the international expertise of universities requires continued major support and cannot be turned on and off on a short-range basis in response to shifting world crises; the crucial role of citizen knowledge and concern for international affairs as an essential foundation for informed policy-making by government and national leadership to impress the foregoing needs on the nation's consciousness. The foregoing offers no tidy priorities. The priorities are interrelated. Complicating the problem of prioritization is the competition among the many interest groups involved in international education. Probably one of the more significant achievements of the Perkins Commission is a greater communication and collaboration among the different interest groups.[JCK]
Burn, B.B., & Briggs, A. (1985). Study abroad: A European and an American
perspective. Paris: European Institute of Education and Social Policy. [O-015] Study abroad by American undergraduates is increasing in scope and importance although reliable statistical data is not available to document this in detail. Recent trends point to increases in the numbers of students in professional fields and the sciences that study abroad as well as an increase in the number studying in the developing and/or nonwestern countries; however, these numbers are still very limited. The rationale for U.S. study abroad relates to the need for more knowledge of other countries and cultures and their languages by more Americans as part of citizen and professional education and the contribution of study abroad to students' personal growth. Among ten deterrents to U.S. undergraduate study abroad are lack of foreign language proficiency, finance, demographic factors, anti-foreign and parochial attitudes, inadequate structures in colleges and universities to foster and facilitate study abroad, unwarranted priority in some quarters to graduate study abroad, and the lack of research and evaluation documenting impacts. Notwithstanding the deterrents, undergraduate study abroad should be a growing priority, and prospects for strengthening it are increasingly favorable. Nine recommendations to advance the field are set forth, most of which are aimed at reducing or eliminating the deterrents described earlier.[BBB]
Burnham, W.E., Trendler, C.A., & Harris, D. (1966). Impact of foreign study
on American students.Unpublished manuscript, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN. [I-006]
Carlson, J. S. (1983). Effects of study abroad on linguistic and cultural/personal
variables. [I-034] This outline of a project discusses several research questions, and describes selected linguistic and cultural- personal outcome measures as well as input variables. The selection of instruments was made with the criterion in mind that the measures be of known and demonstrated validity; the development of new instruments was purposely avoided. In this study, there is self-selection of subjects to conditions; students pick out or choose the opportunity to study abroad, and are thus not randomly assigned to do so. It is pointed out further that students who study abroad are systematically different from other types of college students in that they both want to study abroad and also meet the grade point and language proficiency requirements for studying abroad. One comparison group against which the Study Abroad group is contrasted is a group that is labeled the Qualified group. Students in the Qualified group are to be selected such that they meet the same grade point and language proficiency requirements as do students studying abroad but do not, for whatever reasons, elect to study abroad. A second group against which the Study Abroad group is compared is termed the Above Average condition. Subjects for this sample are to be selected such that they meet the same grade point average as do students in the Study Abroad condition, but do not necessarily have proficiency in a foreign language. Several tests are to be administered; the primary analyses to be performed will be repeated measures analyses of variance (ANOVAs) on all dependent measures.[JCK]
Carlson, J.S. (1986, March). The U.S.-European study abroad evaluation
project: Comments on some of the U.S. data. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Comparative and International Education Society, Toronto. [E-018] The purpose of this presentation was to acquaint the listener with the general design of the study as it involves student impacts and to give an overview of some of the data analyzed so far. The focus concerns American students only. The design of the study with regard to student impacts, was guided by several considerations. After reviewing the literature concerning the impact of study abroad experiences on students, investigators were convinced that a focused, systematic, longitudinal, control or comparison group design should be employed in order to obtain the quality of data necessary to be able to draw relatively unambiguous conclusions from the data. Another area of concern was, and is, the issue of potentially differential effects of the study abroad experience due to inter- and intra-individual differences. In our view, the study abroad experience is a dynamic one; one that is poorly conceived within a neat dependent-independent variable paradigm. We have no doubt about the veracity of the assumption that study abroad makes a difference. But what are the dimensions of this difference? For whom is the difference greatest? For whom is it least, or not at all? And why?[JCK]
Carlson, J.S., & Jensen, M.C. (1983). Participant questionnaire 81-82:
Analysis of responses. Santa Barbara, CA: University of California, Education Abroad Program. [E-008] This year's report combines previous formats of the EAP participant questionnaire reports. Questions are grouped under several categorical headings. Items amenable to statistical analysis are summarized across all respondents. Illustrative student comments are presented for the "open-ended" parts of each question.[JCK]
Carlson, J.S., & Jensen, M.C. (1983). Participant questionnaire 80-81:
Analysis of responses. Santa Barbara, CA: University of California, Education Abroad Program. [E-007] A statistical analysis of participant questionnaire forms mailed to and returned by 1980-81 returnees. The overall response rate for the returns was 55%, slightly higher than that of the previous two years.[JCK]
Carlson, J.S., & Widaman, K.F. (1988). The effects of study abroad during college
on attitudes toward other cultures. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 12 (1), 1-18. [C-012] The purpose of this investigation was to assess changes in attitudes and perceptions toward international understanding by university students who had spent a year of study abroad at a European university. Using a quasi-experimental design, a questionnaire was sent to 450 students who spent their junior year abroad and 800 students who remained on their home campus during their junior year. The responses were 67% and 65%, respectively. The questionnaire asked for retrospective views before the junior year as well as for views presently held. In addition, subjects were queried concerning shifts in attitudes during the junior year. Factor analytic and analysis of variance procedures were used to analyze the data. Consistent with the main hypotheses guiding the study, the results indicated increased levels of international political concern, cross-cultural interest, and cultural cosmopolitanism for the study abroad group. This group also reported more positive yet also more critical views of the United States than did the comparison group. The results were discussed in terms of the general goals of international educational exchange programs.[AUT]
Carlson, J. S., & Yachimowicz. (1986). American study abroad program
evaluation project descriptive statistics: Questionnaires "D" and "F". Santa Barbara,CA: University of California, Education Abroad Program. [O-005] A compiling of descriptive statistics addressing such categories as: background data of participants; study abroad; knowledge and view of other countries and international affairs; language proficiency; assessment of learning styles, abilities and accomplishments; career prospects; motivation, choice and preparation for the Study Abroad Program (SAP); and interest in study abroad.[JCK]
Carsello, C., & Greaser, J. (1976). How college students change during study
abroad. College Student Journal, 10, 276-278. [I-007] This study surveyed 209 students from eight colleges living abroad in Italy, France, Spain, and Switzerland. Students were asked to indicate positive and/or negative change in interests, attitudes, and skills in a total of 30 areas, academic or personal concerns. Details of methods are not given. Students reported more positive than negative changes. The most frequently mentioned positive changes were: interest in foreign languages, history, relating to strangers, interest in USA, self concept, interest in architecture, and interest in reading, in "your" career and in "your" family. Most frequently mentioned negative changes were decline in study habits, reading periodicals, newspapers, ability to concentrate, ability to remember, reading assigned texts, peace of mind, physical health, reading fiction and finally, relating to fellow students, emotional health, decreased interest in USA, reading nonfiction, social life, and relating to faculty. Areas frequently mentioned as positive changes were infrequently mentioned as negative changes, suggesting that influences were fairly similar for all students in that they were affected in the same way.[JM]
Castro, F. P., & de Puga, E. S. (1967). The developing relationship between
sending institutions and receiving institutions: Their problems, significance, and potentials. Occasional Papers on International Educational Exchange, 12. New York: CIEE. [O-101]
Church, A.T. (1982). Sojourner adjustment. Psychological Bulletin, 91(3), 540-
572. [I-008] Literature related to the psychological adjustment of relatively short-term visitors or sojourners to new cultures is critically reviewed. Descriptive approaches (stages, curves of adjustment, types, culture learning), the nature and extent of problems encountered, and the background, situational, personality, and outcome variables related to the sojourner adjustment are covered. Issues and barriers in effective cross-cultural counseling of sojourner problems are discussed. Criticisms of the sojourner literature focus on limited, global methodologies, the nonlongitudinal nature of most studies, and a failure to attend to and apply contributions and implications of the literature on cross-cultural research and methodology.[JCK]
Churchill, R. (1958). The student abroad. Antioch Review, 18, 447-454. [O-
018] The author notes that, while foreign study does produce changes in attitudes of students, and students are more aware of themselves, of America, and of other countries, when the evidence is inspected more closely, it becomes apparent that some students have not changed at all and others have become more narrowly American and more critical of foreign values. Still others have perceived Europe in clearly distorted ways. The paper then warns that if the increasing number of colleges now conducting educational programs abroad are to exploit more creatively the rich opportunity that is offered to them, they must carefully plan the conditions under which their students will feel the impact of the foreign milieu. Learning the language, living with the people, and taking part in the daily life as a student or a worker-all make an impact possible. But even if these have been carefully planned, the value of the experience may be largely wasted if the final condition is not met: that the student have an opportunity to report his experiences, to exchange impressions with others who have been abroad, and finally to achieve some recognition of the values of two cultures.[JCK]
Cleveland, H., Mangone, G., & Adams, J.C. (1960). The overseas Americans.
New York: McGraw-Hill. [O-019] The object of their research was to answer four main questions about Americans abroad: (1) What elements in the education and experience of an American are most relevant to his effective performance on an overseas assignment? (2) To what extent are these elements central to the education and training processes to which present and prospective overseas Americans are exposed? (3) What is now being done to prepare American civilians for overseas service? (4) What should the American educational system-and some of its financial sponsors in business, government, and private foundations-be doing in this field? The project first brought together statistics showing the number of Americans at work abroad, but more important than the numbers in themselves was an analysis of what these Americans were doing abroad, showing that the United States has come out of an era of arm's-length diplomacy. The countries selected for the project were Mexico, Yugoslavia, Ethiopia, Iran, Indonesia, and Japan. In each country an advance agent of the research project was appointed to start the process of identifying those American organizations that might cooperate in the survey project. An effort was made to select those people who had been living and working in the country for at least a year, whose work made necessary a good deal of contact with nationals of the host country, and who were in the middle or upper grades of their own organizations and therefore had some discretion in policy matters. As a corollary, researchers undertook to investigate the foreign language facility and the orientation-both to the United States and to foreign countries-which a college education now affords to Americans. For this purpose more than 500 undergraduates and graduates en route to Europe for the first time were questioned aboard 13 transatlantic ships during the summer of 1957. Of special interest here are chapters 14 and 15, dealing with the internationalization of college and of graduate work, respectively.[JCK]
Coelho, G.V. (1962). Personal growth and educational development through
working and studying abroad. Journal of Social Issues, 18, 55-67. [I-009] Three general areas of outcomes of student exchange programs are identified and described. Then, four studies appearing in this same journal are reviewed. Selected dependent variables cited in this study as outcomes are discussed: attitude change, image, and stereotyping. Conceptual distinctions among these three variables are clarified in order to determine the motivational units of analysis that are most relevant to developmental variables in the study of attitude and behavioral change. A new approach is proposed for future research, to clarify short term developmental patterns of competence in the sojourn so that organization of attitude and behavioral changes over time can be related to significant preparatory experiences in individuals. If cross-cultural educational experience in individuals produce certain valued outcomes, social scientists should investigate what preparatory functions these competencies serve in facilitating personal growth and educational development.[JM]
Cohen, M.A. (1987). Work, study, travel abroad: The whole world handbook
(9th ed.). New York: St. Martin's Press. [G-006] Throughout the book (published biannually), CIEE has focused its attention on special facilities and services that are available to students within a given country or geographical area. They have also included information that is based on the experiences of students who have traveled extensively in a particular area.[JCK]
Coleman, J.S. (1984). Professorial training and institution building in the Third
World: The Rockefeller Foundation experience. Comparative Education Review, 28(2), 180-202. [O-020] This essay compares efforts undertaken by the Rockefeller Foundation to further the advanced professional education of prospective members of the professorate located in the highly contrasting national settings of two very different developing countries. It seeks to identify the various factors associated with the success or failure of those efforts and the lessons learned about the opportunities for and the limits to external assistance in the formative phase of the creation of the indigenous professorate and their institutions. Broader issues raised and illuminated by the study include the effects of the sociopolitical-cultural environment and the professional infrastructure in home countries on the reception, retention, and professional performance of the first generation of those members of the professorate educated abroad; the alternatives to the full-term Ph.D. program of study in a foreign university as a mode of university academic staff development; and the effects of employing meritocratic criteria for the recruitment of candidates for overseas training on the societies concerned.[JCK]
Colleges set record number of study-abroad programs. (1979, May 14).
Chronicle of Higher Education, p. 2. [O-060] A record number of summer and academic year study-abroad programs will be offered in 1979-80, the Institute of International Education reports. In its annual review, Summer Study Abroad, the institute says American colleges and universities will offer 904 programs throughout the world. Academic Year Abroad reports that 804 overseas programs are planned for 1979-80.[JCK]
Commanday, S. (1976). Creative alternatives in international education.
ISECSI International Educational & Cultural Exchange, 11(3), 5-9. [O-021] A report about the RCC's (Rockland Community College) Israel Program. RCC began the first semester in Israel affiliated with one institution. By the end of the semester they were affiliated with five and the number has been growing ever since. The students who have been to Israel through RCC's program of study have, in most cases, found the experience intensely stimulating and rewarding. The RCC's system of assigning students to programs, "academic matchmaking," is most unusual in international education and absolutely unique with regard to Israel. The Israel program seems to put democratic ideas into practice when it unites programs of work with programs of study. It unites experiences for the student who is simultaneously learning and doing, acting and feeling: learning how to use the country and culture as curriculum and resource, as a substitute for the formal educational institution.[JCK]
Committee on Educational Interchange Policy. (1956). Geographic distribution
in exchange programs: Geographic considerations in the selection and placement of U.S. government-sponsored exchange students. New York: Author. [M-002] The purposes of this paper are to briefly review the facts on existing distribution of foreign and American grantees, to identify some of the factors which tend to limit geographic distribution, and to raise some questions concerning the criteria for a "good" geographic distribution. The observations contained in this paper are confined to a discussion of those foreign and American college and university students who receive financial aid through the Department of State. An examination of the programs of 1955 shows that a wide geographic distribution has been attained in the selection of American grantees and in the placement of foreign grantees. Seeming inequities in the geographic representation of states or regions reflect the realities of the American educational scene and the requirements of the exchange programs. In six years, the U.S. State Department programs have earned an outstanding place in the field of international educational exchange. They have won respect as educational, rather than propaganda, activities, a real achievement in a period when the motives of nations are so frequently suspect. They have gained support abroad as mutual, rather than unilateral, undertakings and have stimulated such reciprocal responses as the Marshall Scholarships for Americans, established by the British Government. Everyone concerned with international educational exchange programs hopes that they will continue to merit respect in the United States and in the rest of the world. If they do continue to earn this respect, it will be because selection of exchange fellows is carefully made on well-established standards, and because academic placement of foreign students in the United States is carried out with the educational needs of the individual student as a primary consideration.[JCK]
Condon, J.C., & Yousef, F.S. (1975). An introduction to intercultural
communication.Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill. [C-007]
Cormack, M. L. (1962). An evaluation of research on educational exchange.
Washington, DC: U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Education and Cultural Affairs. [R-004]
Coughlin, M.T. (1975). Detente diplomacy, etc. Unpublished manuscript,
University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA. [O-024]
Council on Student Travel. (1965). Guide to institutional self-study and evaluation
of educational programs abroad. New York: Author. [E-016] This guide is intended as an aid in the process of self-study, to systemize and facilitate the planning or evaluation process. Its primary function is to facilitate the evaluation of an overseas educational program by the sponsoring organization or institution itself. It is not intended as an instrument for the use of an accrediting agency in determining whether or not an educational program meets some previously established rules or criteria. Although the greatest interest in this guide has come from academic institutions, it has also been designed to be useful in the evaluation of nonacademic programs. Each section of the guide is divided into four parts: materials to be examined, statement of guiding principles, program information questions, and evaluative questions.[JCK]
Craig, R. B. (1983, May). Changing student attitudes through foreign study
programs: A director's perspective. Paper presented to the annual meeting of the International Society for Educational, Cultural, and Scientific Interchanges, Cincinnati, OH. [I-023] This paper suggests that part of the failure to uncover such attitude changes, among participants in foreign study experiences, may lie in what the researcher fails to take into account. Based on his experience as director of eight study abroad programs in Mexico, the author proposes that more attention be focused on two types of independent variables. As regards the first category, which he titles "what the student takes with him," one should note in particular: language competence, prior foreign study/travel experience, openness of personality, maturity, sex, reasons for participating, exposure to appropriate area study courses, and participation in pre-program orientation classes. Regarding the second category, "in-country experiences," the analyst might note carefully: host family environment, presence or absence of an American roommate, extent and type of contact with host nationals, amount and nature of travel, courses taken, and any possibly traumatic personal experiences during the program. The reader is alerted to the fact that each variable is treated individually for analytical purposes only. In reality they are all interrelated.[JCK]
Davies, M.W. (1974). An investigation of factors related to participant perception
of the value of overseas study (Doctoral dissertation, University of Toledo, 1974). Dissertation Abstracts International, 35, /09-A, 5850. [I-010] The purpose of this study was to identify variables related to study abroad students' perception of whether their overseas experience was positive or negative. Subjects were study abroad students from small liberal arts college (neither the number of subjects, nor the study site was mentioned in DAI). Two types of variables were examined: background variables (gender, major, parents' occupation) and host culture variables (length of stay, language competence). These variables were then related to students' perceptions of their experience as positive or negative, as measured by the Individual Opinion Inventory, Form A. Four variables were found to be related to "positive" overseas experiences: feeling less favorable toward home institution than international study experience, high involvement with autonomous, independent learning, high cultural appreciation, and enhanced personal development.[JM]
Deutsch, S. E. (1970). International education and exchange: A sociological
analysis. Cleveland, OH: Press of Case Western Reserve University. [R-005] In this volume, the author utilizes data from several surveys to trace the development of international education and exchange programs in American universities. He examines the influence of foreign students on the American campus and considers some of the consequences of the exchange program for both the American institution and the home country. This analysis is unique in its presentation of data gathered from all the groups involved in the foreign exchange program: foreign students, American hosts, members of the faculty, and administrators. The author comprehensively reviews the literature of international education with reference to the broader economic development. He also examines the policies which are to shape the future of intercultural education.[JCK]
Eide, I. (Ed.). (1970). Students as links between cultures: A cross-cultural survey
based on UNESCO studies. Paris: UNESCO. [O-027] An effort, among many, to throw some light on a special case of international communication: the role of the "foreign student" and the attempts to understand, through research, what this means at the individual, national, and international level. This book is published jointly by the Universitetsforlaget and UNESCO, and examines the effects of study abroad both for the country in which the student pursues his education and for the country to which he returns. Based on detailed interviews with students, it deals among other things with the role of study abroad as a link between cultures.[JCK]
Elder, J. W. (1987). Hallmarks of successful programs in the developing world:
The University of Wisconsin's College Year in India program. Occasional Papers on International Educational Exchange, 22, 10-12. New York: CIEE. [O-041] This paper deals with the University of Wisconsin's College Year in India program, with its initial failure and the lessons learned from such an undertaking. It points out some of the guidelines of a re-crafted program and makes suggestions on how to successfully administer such a program.[JCK]
Fersh, S. (1982). Becoming self-educating and culture-creating by being educated
trans-culturally. Reflections, 3(4), 17-24. [O-028] As human beings become aware of their relatedness, they need not necessarily cease being ethnocentric. Ethnocentrism is important and useful because it helps a person to develop a local culture pattern that is appropriate for specific conditions. The discussion in this article does not concern itself so much with cognitive results but rather with affective ones although, of course, the two are integrally related. How desired modifications in a person's attitudes and perceptions are achieved and which particular materials are used, will always depend upon individual situations: the nature of the learner, the teacher, and the availability of educational resources. By learning a general technique on how to study one particular culture, it is hoped that the student can internalize the method and use it towards understanding other cultures in a way similar to that used in educating anthropologists. The paper then advises that, more than ever we need to become our own teachers in a world where educated selves will be able to continue the process of self-educating. No content, the author concludes, can serve this purpose better than cultural encounters; the discovery of "other" is also the discovery of "self." [JCK]
Fersh, S., & Fitchen, E. (Eds.). (1981). The community college and international
education: A report of progress. Cocoa, FL: Brevard Community College. [E-010] This publication consists of two parts: a collection of articles related to policies and programs in community colleges plus instructional materials which were developed at Brevard. The format depends greatly on excerpts rather than on complete articles so that there is a wider representation of materials. Part I of this publication consists of a collection of 24 items which illustrate different aspects of forward movement in international activities and programs. Part II consists of 14 items, all materials created at Brevard Community College: excerpts from the grant proposal and specific examples of modules developed by their faculty. [JCK]
Fisher, J.M., Craig, R.B., & Sell, D.K. (1982, October). A Q-methodological
study of attitudinal changes in Vanderbilt students abroad. [R-007] The purpose of this study is to observe and analyze any changes in attitudes towards Spaniards of 13 Vanderbilt-in-Spain students during the fall 1981 semester in Madrid. Pre- and post-semester attitude surveys were administered to the students, and the researcher interviewed each participant three times: before the semester began, mid-way through the term, and during the last week of class. It is hypothesized that no statistical difference between the attitudes of the students toward the Spaniards before and after their semester in Madrid will be noted. Q methodology is used to derive common factors representing student views toward Spaniards. Any subsequent shift in factor loadings over time, when supported by the researcher's personal knowledge of the students (emanating from her role as participant-observer), is taken as evidence of attitude change. Q methodology was the method chosen to determine attitude change in the 13 students during their semester abroad in Madrid. Of the 10 females and 3 males taking part in the investigation, 7 participants were 20 years of age at the time of the study, 5 were 19 years old, and 1 student was 21. In class rank, 12 were juniors and 1 was a senior. Collectively, they represented 16 academic majors with history being the most common. The most common minor was Spanish. All students had completed at least 2 years study of the Spanish language prior to departure. All 13 participants in the Vanderbilt-in-Spain fall semester 1981 program completed the 57 adjective Q sort at two time periods. This gave the researcher 26 Q sorts to use in correlational and factor analyses. Three factors emerged and were rotated. Each factor represents a different student viewpoint of Spaniards. Factor I pictures the Spanish in an idealistic positive light. The Latino macho negative view is portrayed by Factor II. Factor III represents a more "realistic" perception of the Spanish people.[JCK]
Flack, M.J. (No date). The international realm as experience: Experiential learning
in transnational contexts. Unpublished manuscript. [O-030] A variety of international dimensions of experiential learning are described and analyzed for individuals and groups. Included are experiences for students in American universities on campuses and abroad. The increase from 9,457 American students abroad in 1954-55 to about 50,000 in the early 1980s is attributed to the return of millions of G.I.s after World War II, the infusion into American life of outstanding ex-foreign scholars and researchers, and the recognition by the public of the need for a new type of world. This was also enhanced by the flow of people abroad in development activities and the formation of 160 independent nations. Individual student experiences abroad are in general superior to group experiences except when members of the group speak the foreign language, are not housed together, and have active "cultural apprenticeships" in the host culture. In developing countries experiential learning often means acquiring a skill or profession while abroad to be used for a specific function back home.[HDW]
Flack, M.J. (1976). Results and effects of study abroad. American Academy of
Political and Social Science, 424, 107-117. [I-011] "Results" and "effects" of study abroad present major problems for research and assessment. Positing largely post-return criteria of "effect," a number of propositions seek to indicate some aspects of "results" and "impacts" relating to 1) the individual, 2) the host institution and society, 3) the home society, and 4) intersocietal and international relations. The footnote lists compilations and analyses of pertinent literature.[AUT]
Flack, M. J. (1980, November). Comment on issues and the state of U.S. research
on international exchanges. Paper presented at the U.S.-German Conference on Research on Exchanges, Bonn, West Germany. [M-003] A brief report on research developments since 1974-75, indicating that, basically, the initial characterization offered at the beginning of this paper does not, as of 1980, require major recasting. As before, the period has produced a considerable number of publications<197>chapters, articles, reports, theses and dissertations, monographs, books. As before, many of them are either responses to perceived operational or membership servicing needs of existing agencies, the often delayed publication of results of studies begun years before, the result of idiosyncratic choices by senior or junior academics to explore some research topic of mostly ad hoc or passing concern to the researcher, or compendia gathering within one cover, or within a special journal issue, papers presented at professional conference. Many of these are thoughtful and competent. To what extent they exert an intellectual and research impact, given the lack of cumulative approaches we do not know. To what extent some of the findings or recommendations lead to changes in policy or institutional conduct has not been ascertained. A small number of queries, identifications of need, or proposals is offered at the end of the report. They are presented in four categories: a) Practical-operational, b) substantive-informational, c) macro- conceptual, and d) methodological-conceptual. Their purpose is to stimulate and provoke discussion on at least some of the evident problem areas in research on international educational exchanges.[JCK]
Fraser, S.E. (1984). Overseas students in Australia: Governmental policies and
international programs. Comparative Education Review, 28(2), 279-299. [O-032] The number of tertiary (post secondary) foreign students in Australia has grown from 3,613 in 1962 to 9,492 in 1982. These have come principally from Malaysia, Singapore, and Borneo with 117 coming from North America in 1982. The country source of tertiary students is given for 1982. The number of students in each of 22 disciplines at each of 12 Australian Universities is given for 1983. Information is also given on foreign secondary students. The government policy for overseas students is traced from 1960. In 1979 a "visa" charge was introduced which covered 30-50% of "real" tuition costs. The details of government studies and actions related to foreign students are given including the formation of the Private Overseas Student Policy Review Committee in September 1983.[HDW]
Freeman, S. A. (1965). Problems in relations with foreign universities.
Occasional Papers on International Educational Exchange, 1. New York: CIEE. [O-091]
Fugate, J.K. (1983). The Kalamazoo College foreign study program. ADFL Bulletin,
15(2), 46-49. [E-011] The history of the Kalamazoo College study abroad program is outlined, from its beginning in 1962 to 1981. Since 1962, when approximately half of the junior class participated in programs in France, Germany, South America, and West Africa, the program has grown so that approximately 85% of each graduating class participates in foreign study. Impacts of the study abroad experience are outlined. These include curricular and programmatic developments on the home campus.[BBB]
Fugate, J.K. (1987). Hallmarks of successful programs in the developing world:
Academic programs in universities in sub-Saharan Africa for undergraduates. Occasional Papers on International Educational Exchange, 22, 13-15. New York: CIEE. [O-043] A report on the Kalamazoo College's Foreign Study Program in Africa. From its beginnings, an intensive orientation program in preparation for the overseas experience has been considered an essential component in the success of the program. The program began in 1962, when a group of five Kalamazoo students went to Fourah Bay College at the University of Sierra Leone. Since then 450 American undergraduates have studied at eight African universities, east and west, urban and rural, Francophone and Anglophone.[JCK]
Fugate, J., Haenicke, D., & Northcott, K.J. (1976). The foreign study element
in German studies. In W. Lohnes & V. Nollendorfs (Eds.), German Studies in the United States: Assessment and Outlook. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press. [O-033] This paper addresses itself to some of the major issues which confront a student or foreign study adviser in trying to integrate a period of study abroad into a college curriculum whether for language majors or students whose primary interest is not in language and literature.[JCK]
Galtung, I.E. (1965). The impact of study abroad: A three-by-three nation study
of cross-cultural contact. Journal of Peace Research, 2, 258-276. [I-012] This article reports some of the results from a UNESCO sponsored study that involved students from three countries, the UAR, India, and Iran, who had returned to their home countries after two years or more of study abroad in the German Federal Republic, the United Kingdom, and the USA. These students were interviewed, and reported varying degrees of adjustment to their host countries. In general the Indian students reported fewer changes than the other two student groups, apparently choosing cultural coexistence rather than conformity to a foreign culture. This finding cannot be explained satisfactorily by differences between the samples, or by the Indian students' greater possibility of contact with fellow nationals. It is suggested that such factors as training in cultural pluralism, ideologies that regulate degrees of acculturation, cultural distance, the image of the home country abroad, and its rank in the international system are relevant for the students in their adjustments and degrees of acceptance of the foreign culture.[JCK]
Gardner, E. G. (1967). The selection of American undergraduate students on
the American college campus for participation in study programs overseas. Occasional Papers on International Educational Exchange, 13. New York: CIEE. [O-102]
Garraty, J.A., & Adams, W. (1959). Main St. to Left Bank: Students and
scholars abroad. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press. [O-036]
Garraty, J.A., Klemperer, L. von, & Taylor, C.J.H. (1981). The new guide to
study abroad. New York: Harper & Row. [G-008] This book is a study of American students and professors in Europe. It is based on extended conversations with about 400 Americans and Europeans in 10 countries. It discusses motives for foreign study, comparisons of European and American higher education, orientation, administrative, and academic, and personal aspects of organized programs, impacts on the American participants, and the impact of American Education on Europe. Organized programs of American colleges in Europe are given in an appendix.[HDW]
Gliozzo, C. (1969, July-August). The crisis of international education.
Worldview, 10-11. New York: Council on Religion and International Affairs. [O-026] The focus is on two major issues: 1) the lack of funding for the International Education Act enacted in 1966 which was to implement new programs in international affairs in elementary/secondary schools as well as comprehensive undergraduate collegiate programs in international study; 2) restoration of funds for the Fulbright program which were slashed by 72 percent. Proposed remedies were to establish a lobby in Washington D.C. as a spokesperson for international education and to make use of the foreign currencies that have accumulated under the Food for Freedom programs.[AUT]
Gliozzo, C. (1978). International aspects of general education. Higher Education
Exchange, 12-13. Philadelphia: Peterson's/Lippincott or (London: Central Bureau for Educational Visits and Exchanges. [O-023] The major theme is that higher education has a primary obligation of including programs with an international dimension. Through these programs we can make "sense of the interdependent world in which we live." Examples are cited on how universities/colleges can implement an international component on their respective campuses. General education programs are particularly emphasized.[AUT]
Gliozzo, C. (1980). The international education of minority students. Minority
Education, 2(5), 1-7. Philadelphia: Institute for Minority Education. [O-025] Stresses the importance of giving minority students an opportunity to participate in Michigan State University overseas programs or in other overseas projects based on a $15,000 grant given by the International Communication Agency (United States Information Agency) in 1979. It explains the procedures in selecting eligible minority students, type of allocations, and the beneficial results of minority participants who study abroad.[AUT]
Gliozzo, C. (1981). The international aspects of off-campus credit programs. Issues
in higher education: Predictions, practices and professionalisms, 5, 167- 174. Atlanta, GA: Southern Regional Education Board. [O-022] Specific examples are given of the evidence of provincialism in higher education. The increasing data of insularity in our universities is rampant and overwhelming. Off-campus programs which focus on international exchanges, overseas study, language instruction, cross-cultural awareness, etc. are various solutions in breaking down the barrier of parochialism.[AUT]
Golden, J.S. (1973, spring). Student adjustment abroad: A psychiatrist's view.
International Educational and Cultural Exchange. [I-013] The emotional stresses experienced by U.S. undergraduates abroad have received relatively little attention. The author of this article, a psychiatrist, professor, and assistant dean of students describes his efforts to counsel students in an encounter group during their year in Spain; describing recurring psychiatric problems, critical periods in emotional adjustment during the year abroad, and major problems experienced by the students including depression and difficulties in romantic/sexual relationships. Findings and recommendations for handling emotional problems of study abroad students are presented.[JM]
Gorden, A. (No date). How to cope with culture shock. Unpublished
manuscript. [C-009] Culture shock is defined as a kind of silent sickness, a mental illness that often afflicts the inexperienced traveler or the unaware expatriate. It especially hits those who have never been away from home. The paper points out that most experts in intercultural communication agree that the basic cause of culture shock is the abrupt loss of the familiar signs and symbols of social intercourse, causing a sense of isolation and diminished self-importance. While a mature, confident person may be able to shrug off these "circumstances of beleaguered self-esteem," the newcomer is insecure, sensitive and shy, and is easily overwhelmed. The author suggests that before the visitor to a foreign land leaves home, he should make up his mind neither to resist the culture in which he finds himself, nor surrender to it. He needs to inch his way toward a new, flexible personality, a personality that retains its own cultural identity but recognizes the right of others to retain theirs.[JCK]
Gorden, R. (1968). American guests in Colombian homes: Study on cross-
cultural communication. Yellow Springs, OH: Antioch College. [C-010]
Gorden, R.L. (1974). Living in Latin America: A case study. Skokie, IL:
National Textbook Company. [C-011]
Gough, H., & McCormack, W. (1967). An exploratory evaluation of education
abroad (Cooperative Research Project No. 5-440). Berkeley, CA: University of California. [E-012] The authors discuss whether the study abroad movement is significant and whether study abroad is likely to be a part of the experience of every college student some day. They also express their hope that at least broad trends would emerge, so that more definite study could be planned and initiated. From the data gathered on students of equivalent academic standing who did not apply for overseas programs, it was possible to specify some of the factors differentiating applicants from nonapplicants. In comparing these two samples of high- achieving students several prominent themes were discovered, and themes that one might expect to be present were not found. One factor of clear differentiation showed that the applicants, on a special "interviewer's Q-sort" were described as adventurous, interested in the new and different, and deeply responsive to their experiences; whereas the nonapplicants were characterized as narrower, more conventional, and as stressing income and financial status as major life goals. Further differentiations were found in political and social attitudes, and linguistic ability. From among the many tests, ratings, and other indices available, several patterns of relationship were established.The report finally points out that any selection committee would be well-advised to pay serious attention to past performance as well as to linguistic aptitude and verbal ability.[JCK]
Grove, C. L. (1982). Improving intercultural learning through the orientation
of sojourners. Occasional Papers in Intercultural Learning, 1. New York: AFS. [O-037] The question addressed in this article is how orientation programs and materials can best enable the sojourner to be well disposed to learn about things like interdependence of peoples and nations, peaceful conflict resolution, personal growth and awareness, and so on. Issues reviewed include the value of training families, the relative emphasis placed on predeparture and post-arrival orientations, the comparative advantage of building knowledge of one's home or host culture, whether it is best to focus on culture-specific or culture-general content in orientation programs, whether it is important to provide orientation programs for returnees, and the debate between the proponents of experiential training methods on the one hand, and the defenders of the intellectual approach on the other.[JCK]
Gullahorn, J.T., & Gullahorn, J.E. (1958). American objectives in study abroad.
Journal of Higher Education, 29, 369-374. [O-038] This study was done to determine the goals of American students studying in France in 1954-55. Interviews were made with 205 American students and questionnaires received from 401. Students were asked to respond to 11 objectives. The three highest responses were: 1) to gain professional advancement (75%); 2) to acquire an understanding of French culture (67%), and 3) to become "at home" in the French language (57%).[HDW]
Gullahorn, J. T., & Gullahorn, J.E. (1963). An extension of the U-curve
hypothesis. Journal of Social Issues, 19, 33-47. [T-013] Students and other sojourners abroad typically experienced initial elation and optimism followed by frustration and alienation in interacting with host country nationals. An important factor is the lack of complementarity in expectations, for example, on relations between students and professors or members of the opposite sex. The degree of culture-shock experienced by a sojourner abroad is affected by his/her flexibility of role behavior and cross-cultural sensitivity. Various research studies and possibilities are mentioned or proposed on sojourner adjustment abroad. Sojourners who effectively resocialize in the alien environment typically undergo a re-acculturation process on returning home, much greater for students than for well established faculty. A W- rather than U-shaped curve therefore characterizes sojourners' cultural patterning abroad and subsequently in the home culture. Research using a 13-item Satisfaction Index showed the positive impact on U.S. faculty abroad of the number and frequency of their contacts with foreign colleagues showing similar professional goals and values. This and other aspects of sojourners' and returnees' adjustments reveal many areas for important research which would enhance our understanding of international educational exchange.[BBB]
Haenicke, D.H. (1976). Foreign language study in international education.
ADFL Bulletin, 8(2), 11-15. [O-076] With the background of two programs in Germany by Wayne State University, comments on strategies for building international programs are given and suggestions on how to work a foreign language department into an already existing international curriculum are made.[HDW]
Halsted, H.M. (1980, November). Research on international exchanges: A
foundation perspective. Paper presented at the U.S.-German Conference on Research on Exchanges, Bonn, West Germany. [M-005] This paper presents some views about the role of foundations, a means for directing private wealth to worthy purposes. There are today in the U.S. approximately 21,500 active grant-making foundations. Total annual foundation grants exceed two billion dollars. Foundation giving in the U.S. focuses on the fields of education, health, science, welfare, humanities, and religion. International activities, which rose to second place in the 1960s, have since fallen behind as a category of foundation giving. In recent years there has been a decline in foundation grants for international exchanges. There are a number of reasons for this decline resulting in disappointments and skepticism about the relationship of exchanges to peace and development. The economy itself has affected the allocation of foundation funds to international projects. Inflation and balance of payments considerations have also been factors in this regard. Another view hinted at by the author is that perhaps foundations have done their job as initiators and catalysts in the field of international exchanges, and the tasks should now be assumed by governments, universities, corporations, and others. One area in which more research investigation is needed is research on national perceptions and modes of perception. A second research area for cross-cultural studies, the author concludes, is to be found in refugee and migration populations.[JCK]
Harari, M. (1980, November). University and institutional exchanges. Paper
presented at the U.S.-German Conference on Research on Exchanges, Bonn, West Germany. [M-006] This paper focuses on the movement of academic personnel and administrators as part of a structured institutional program, stressing that we should include in our information, analysis, and policy activities, the developing countries as well as the developed ones and that our concept of university and institutional exchanges should not be considered as discreet and isolated activities but as activities which should relate to overall societal change and objectives.[JCK]
Hartle, R. W. (1968). The university and international education. Occasional
Papers on International Educational Exchange, 11. New York: CIEE. [O-100]
Hayden, R.L. (1976). Relating language to international education: Some DO's
and DON'Ts. ADFL Bulletin, 8(2), 16-21. [T-004] The foreign language field in the U.S. is in a state of crisis with an enrollment decline of 30 percent from 1968-74, a low level of language competence even among language and area specialists, and low motivation for foreign language study. Various do's and don'ts are recommended to strengthen foreign language teaching and learning. The former include encouraging and strengthening the foreign language dimensions of study abroad programs, utilizing foreign students as a linguistic and cultural resource in the classroom, and more involvement or collaboration by foreign language departments with professional schools, bilingual bicultural education, and technical assistance projects.[BBB]
Hayden, R.L. (1980). U.S. Government exchanges: The quest for coordination. American
Academy of Political and Social Science, 449, 114-128. [O-039] The nature and range of international exchanges in the past three decades is impressive. Despite the fact that federally sponsored exchanges account for only 5 percent of the total of foreign visitors in this country, this 5 percent embraced, in fiscal year 1977, some 39,000 individuals under the auspices of several dozen agencies and at an estimated total cost of $662 million. The total estimate for purposeful, that is, nonmilitary and nontouristic foreign exchanges, is estimated to be over one million exchanges annually. Since 1953, attempts have been make to collect data about federal exchange programs and to coordinate this activity. Increasingly, better data and interagency information sharing will be needed to assess the impact of exchanges and areas where shrinking funds can best be invested. Better infusion of exchange experiences into educational programming aimed at educating Americans about other peoples and cultures is similarly a challenge in the eighties.[AUT]
Hayden, R.L. (1980, November). U.S. Government exchange policy: The role
of research and coordination. Paper presented at the U.S.-German Conference on Research on Exchanges, Bonn, West Germany. [M-007] Using the Fulbright grants as comparison, the author notes that during the period 1968 to 1980 the same general downward slide occurred on a worldwide basis. Categories most affected were students, teachers, and in the case of non-U.S. awards, lecturers. Only one category, that of research, reflects increases, demonstrating the relative lack of support for student exchanges, as well as declining opportunities for younger, nontenured faculty members. What also emerges from even a superficial analysis of past experience is that the federal government's attempts to coordinate international education, research, and exchange programming have had a mixed or checkered history, and that the limitations in this area are real. Better information gathering, based on specific programmatic and policy utility could yield improved administrative techniques, better Washington/field coordination, and streamlined information-handling procedures. While, the author warns, the Bonn Conference represents an auspicious beginning, follow-up activities are the key to assuring that this open moment for international exchanges research development does not become yet another insurmountable opportunity for this vital but fragmented field.[JCK]
Hensley, T.R., & Sell, D.K. (1979). A study abroad program: An examination
of impacts on student attitudes. Teaching Political Science, 6, 387-412. [I-015] This article examines the impact of a unique overseas political science program on the attitudes of student participants. It focuses on assessing attitude change in regard to world-mindedness and support for the United Nations and in regard to self-esteem and tolerance of ambiguity. The findings include the conclusion that a substantial degree of change occurred only on the self-esteem variable.[AUT]
Herman, S.N. (1970). American students in Israel. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University
Press. [O-040] In this cross-cultural study the author analyzes the special motives and expectations of American Jewish students in Israel, the changes in their attitudes during and after their stay, and the reactions of Israelis to them. The author administered questionnaires to students on their way to Israel, after they had been in Israel for several months, and a year after their return to the United States. Using these questionnaires as well as interviews and diaries, Professor Herman brings into sharp focus the unique relationships of the visiting students to their Israeli hosts, the attitudes they have in common and the ways in which they differ, and the problems of social contact that the students experienced as "strangers among kinsfolk." He devotes a chapter to the students' involvement in the Six-Day War, and another to those students who settled in Israel. The book contributes to the methodology of a growing body of social-psychological literature on cross-cultural education, and the conceptual framework it develops will be of special interest to psychologists and sociologists. It will also be helpful to foreign student advisers and to students considering study abroad, particularly in Israel.[JCK]
Herman, S.N., & Schild, E. (1960). Contexts for the study of cross-cultural
education. Journal of Social Psychology, 52, 231-250. [C-013] Data derived from a panel study of American Jewish students in Israel were analyzed within several conceptual contexts. The problems of learning and adjustment of the student in a foreign country were looked at as those of a person in a new psychological situation, as those of a stranger in the host society, and as those of a person in overlapping situations. Attention was given to the effect of the orientation of the student on the cross- cultural experience. Change in the cross-cultural situation was viewed as a particular instance of reeducation. At the same time attention was directed to the special perspective provided by the study of cross-cultural education on these processes.[JCK]
Hess, G. (1976). Rockland Community College: Five years later. New York:
International Education and Culture Exchange. [P-005]
Hildebrand, M. (1983). A report on international students in Sweden. ISECSI
Bulletin of International Interchanges, 19, 6-10. [P-006] After a general description of foreign students in Sweden, the report talks about the entrance requirements, and then points to some specific problems to be encountered with foreign students such as problems with authorities in Sweden and their home country, the different way of teaching in Sweden, the refugee problem, and the fact that most have difficulties to follow teaching in Swedish, study literature in English, and then be examined in Swedish. The author then proposes some solutions to these problems like: preparatory course in Swedish, better social system, better admission procedures, not more than 5% visiting students in each course, not more than 20% of those from one country; gradual transition between the Swedish courses and the academic studies, etc.[JCK]
Hill, D. J. (Ed.). (1986). Study abroad in the eighties. Columbus, OH:
Renaissance. [O-049] This book is directed at anyone involved in the planning and implementing of study abroad programs in addition to teachers. Section One is concerned with program design and discusses the reciprocal exchange program between the University of South Florida and Paris VII, innovations in the internationalizing of the community college, and low-cost advertising and recruiting techniques. Section Two is concerned with curriculum design, the maintaining of academic standards, and the criteria for earning academic credit. Section Three is concerned with low-cost financing, pointing out how study abroad often costs the same or less than the same amount of study on the home campus.The text concludes with a discussion of the value of study abroad for the student as well as the director.[JCK]
Hofman, J.E., & Zak, I. (1969). Interpersonal contact and attitude change in a
cross-cultural situation. Journal of Social Psychology, 78, 165-171. [I-052] It was hypothesized that interpersonal contact in a cross-cultural situation would be associated with attitude change. A group of secondary school pupils from the U.S. and Canada, of Jewish background, who attended a summer camp at an Israeli Youth Village, were observed with reference to the contact each established with Israeli peers. Before and at the end of the camp, their attitudes toward Jewishness and Israel were assessed. Subjects were divided into low and high contact groups: high contact campers became more favorable in their attitudes, while low contact campers did not change at all or became less favorable in their attitudes, as predicted.[AUT]
Holland, K. (Special Ed.). (1976). International exchange of persons: A reassessment.
American Academy of Political and Social Science, 424. [O-051] A series of articles by eleven different authors, all having to do with a reassessment of the international exchange of persons, with a preface by special editor Kenneth Holland.[JCK]
Hoopes, D., & Ventura, P. (Eds.). (1979). Intercultural sourcebook. Yarmouth,
ME: Intercultural Press. [C-014] In this edited book, various authors described a number of cross-cultural training methodologies including: several kinds of role playing, cross-cultural simulations, contrast American approach, cultural assimilator, self-awareness inventories, workbook approaches, critical incidents, case studies, group exercises, and area specific training. For each methodology, there is some theoretical background, a description of the exercise and instructions for conducting the training and some debriefing notes.(JM)
Hopkins, R.S. (1982). Defining and predicting overseas effectiveness for
adolescent exchange students. Dissertation Abstracts International, 42/12A, 5052. [T-005] The purpose of this study was to define overseas effectiveness and the personality characteristics which predict it for adolesecents participating in a year-long, host family, cross-cultural exchange program. Previous research has focused primarily on predictors of overseas effectiveness without paying sufficient attention to establishing adequate criteria measures of overseas effectiveness for a particular sample population or cross- cultural situation. In addition, predictor measures have relied heavily on the identification of personality traits without respect to stages of personality development. The instruments, data collection, and data analyses were based on Hawes and Kealy (1979) and were augmented with the use of a developmental projective measure, the Loevinger Sentence Completion Test (LSCT). A sample of 209 U.S. and Latin American exchange students, their host families, and an organizational representative each filled out two standardized instruments concurrently. One was designed to gather data about the student's personality characteristics, the other about the student's experience. Each student also completed the LSCT prior to the host country stay. The following scales were constructed to establish criteria for overseas effectiveness: 1) overall affect, 2) communication skills, 3) host country interaction and interest, 4) commitment to host family, 5) overall adjustment and 6) academic effectiveness. Scales were also constructed to measure personality characteristics. Correlations were calculated between these predictor measures and the criteria measures. The significant predictors were 1) self- confidence/initiative, 2) natural family communication, 3) interpersonal interest, 4) interpersonal harmony, 5) non-ethnocentrism, and 6) background for host school. Together, these six predicted all the criteria scales. The LSCT predicted at least one scale in all six criteria dimensions. The results of this study on adolescent exchange students parallel the results of the previous Hawes and Kealey study (1979) on technical advisers lending credibility not only to their findings, but also to the efficacy of their method. Beyond the utility and validity of the LSCT, the findings suggest that not only character traits but also developmental "readiness" may be a factor in overseas effectiveness.[JCK]
Hoskins, L. M. (1962). The foreign study program at Earlham College. Journal
of General Education, 13(4), 262-267. [P-009] Earlham College operates six-month study programs abroad. Students are usually integrated into the foreign university. Three terms of language plus a summer intensive language program are required of students in locations where teaching is not in English. An Earlham faculty person normally accompanies the students.[HDW]
Hoskins, L. (1970). Evaluation of "Study-Service Term" for Goshen College.
Unpublished manuscript, Goshen College, Goshen, IN. [E-013]
Howard, E. (Ed.). (1987). Vacation study abroad 1988. New York: Institute of
International Education. [G-005] Previously published under the title Summer Study Abroad, this annual publication contains descriptions of over 1,000 summer study programs worldwide sponsored by U.S. and foreign universities and institutions.
Howard, E. (Ed.). (1988). Academic year abroad: 1988-1989. New York: Institute
of International Education. [G-003] Previously published under the title U.S. College-Sponsored Programs Abroad: Academic Year, this annual publication contains descriptions on over 1,500 postsecondary study programs abroad during the academic year. Part 1 lists programs that are sponsored by accredited U.S. colleges and universities; Part 2 lists programs offered by nonaccredited U.S. institutions, foreign universities, language schools, and other U.S. and foreign organizations.
Hull, W. F., IV. (1980). Five years later: American UGs from overseas programs.
1974-75. Paper presented at the International Studies Association meeting, Washington, DC. [R-008]
Hull, W. F., IV. (1981). Cross-cultural experiential programming. International
Review of Education, 1, 64-75. [O-042] Thesis of this article is that formal cross-cultural experiential learning programs for Americans and non- Americans are appropriate throughout the world, including the learner's own country, and that they are valuable at all educational levels. The ends achievable through experiential learning can rightly be the primary, and at times even the sole, objective for programs within the formal undergraduate curriculum. These ends also complement and strengthen the traditional goals of liberal arts education. After reviewing the research, it is clear to the author that students are seeking involvement and interaction on off-campus programs along with academic offerings and opportunities. When they find this combination, the programs probably do have a great and long-lasting and often professional impact. Program development in the area of cross-cultural experiential learning is the direction in which educators in undergraduate liberal arts education should be moving, both on the home campus and in off- campus offerings.[JCK]
Hull, W.F., IV. (1983). The overseas student question: Studies for a policy.
Journal of Higher Education, 54(3), 356-357. [R-009]
Hull, W.F., IV, & Lemke, W.H., Jr. (1975). The assessment of off-campus higher
education. International Review of Education, 21, 195-206. [M-008] While off-campus educational programs grow in number and in importance in American higher education, little systematic research has been conducted concerning their effectiveness and intellectual impact. The project described here compared students in three categories: those studying abroad (n=1,099), those studying off campus in the U.S. (n=527), and those who remained on campus. All students completed the Individual Opinion Inventory (IOI). Four major conclusions are drawn from analysis of data: 1) individuals did change during off-campus sojourns, but changes did not appear to be correlated with location; 2) no evidence of clear superiority of off-campus study programs abroad over off-campus programs in U.S.; 3) perceived emphasis on foreign language competency for students studying abroad in some programs deemed by students as inappropriate; 4) students had qualifications in their enthusiasm for off-campus program; academics deemed inferior. Suggests a rethinking of existing off-campus programs as appropriate. Specific suggestions are given.[JM]
Hull, W.F., IV, Lemke, W.H., Jr., & Houang, R.T. (1977). The American undergraduate,
off-campus and overseas: A study of the educational validity of such programs. Occasional Papers on International Educational Exchange, 20. New York: CIEE. [M-009] In this report the authors have attempted to portray the complex nature of a project aimed precisely at ameliorating our understanding of off-campus educational programs. The task for this project was thus to identify the specific goals sought by a group of highly qualified off-campus study program directors and to develop an appropriate instrument to assess whether or not the student participants perceived these goals as having been actualized within themselves. In order to accomplish this assessment task, an instrument entitled the "Individual Opinion Inventory" (also referred to as the IOI) was developed. In this instrument the attempt was made to encourage individuals who were highly respected in the area of off-campus educational programs to specify the precise formal and informal goals of their programs and also to identify those factors which, in their view, determined whether students had a "good" or "poor<170" experience. In considering all of the data generated by this project, including data from interviews and discussions with students, faculty, and administrators since 1972, the following observations seem apropos: First, it was quite clear that individuals changed and were changed drastically during and by various programs overseas, within the United States, and at the home campuses; but the changes could not be attributed to the factor of location. Change seemed rather to be a factor of individual receptivity, motivation, openness, personal psychology, and chance experiences. Second, in this study, no clear or general superiority of off- campus overseas programs was demonstrated over off-campus domestic programs in altering student-reported perceptions of the affective areas under consideration. Third, in a surprising number of instances, more change was indicated as occurring during domestic programs than during overseas programs on variables long considered to be in the semi-exclusive domain of international programs. Fourth, preparation in a foreign language for those students studying abroad in programs not designed specifically for foreign language majors was seen as being too difficult and time consuming and really not worth the effort. Fifth, while students recommended their programs off campus to other students, they qualified their enthusiasm. "Academics" off campus were almost unanimously deemed inferior to those available on the home campus. [JCK]
Intercultural communicating. (1976). Provo, UT: Brigham Young University,
Language & Intercultural Research Center. [C-028] The information in this learning aid was taken from many sources. It introduces readers to the "basics" of intercultural communication and tries to help them go beyond the usual "American" focus. The learning aid shows, supported by many cartoons, that we can adequately cross intercultural communication bridges and barriers if we are willing and able, in order to acknowledge, identify, and deal with both their positive and negative aspects. We need to learn what to say and do, and how to say and do it. Intercultural communication is most effective when some essential keys are used, such as empathy, good will, humility, language and manner of expression of the other people, showing that we care, praise and caution in criticism, suspension of judgments during conflict, demonstration of trust, confidence in the other, and if we become increasingly aware of and continually use feedback received from other persons and other sources to make communication complete.
James, N. E. (1976). Students abroad: Expectations versus reality. Liberal
Education, 62(4), 599-607. [I-025] The purpose of the study was to examine the goals of American students going to Europe in 1972-73 for a year's study and to compare it with their perceived outcomes. 52 U.S. students bound for study in Vienna, Florence, Montpellier, Avignon, and London where chosen, four were going independently, and the rest were randomly selected from three organized programs. They were tested with the OPI test and compared with average students in U.S. colleges. A questionnaire used in a 1960 study was administered which indicated the students' goals were: 1) to provide a basic general education and appreciation of ideas and trends; 2) to develop ability to get along with different kinds of people and to develop knowledge and interest in community and world problems. A year later 31 students (60%) reported to interview. In rank ordering the impacts of the overseas experience they listed the values of stimulus to learning, broadening of perspectives, and increasing personal awareness, self understanding, and self-confidence.[HDW]
Jansen, M. B. (1974). Education and the Japan-America tie in the mid-70s.
Occasional Papers on International Educational Exchange, 18. New York: CIEE. [O-105]
Johnson, B.L. (Ed.). (1982). New directions for community colleges: General
education, No. 40. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. [O-044]
Juffer, K.A. (1984). State of the art research on culture shock. ISECSI Bulletin
of International Interchanges, 21, 16-28. [C-015] The author emphasizes the necessity to distinguish "culture shock" from cross-cultural adaptation and adjustment. In dealing with cross-cultural adjustment, she argues, it is important to determine precisely what aspect of the process is being referred to as "culture shock." This researcher, after reviewing several definitions of culture shock, suggests that those definitions fall into five categories based on the assumed underlying cause of the culture shock experience expressed in each of the definitions:
1. Culture shock is caused by confronting a new environment or situation. 2. Culture shock is caused by ineffective intercultural or interpersonal communication. 3. Culture shock is caused by a threat to the emotional or intrapsychic well-being of the sojourner. 4. Culture shock occurs in reaction to the need to adequately modify behavior to regain positive reinforcement from the new environment. 5. Culture shock is caused by a growth experience.
Although the reliability and validity data are still preliminary, the Culture Shock Adaptation Inventory (CSAI), she suggests, appears to be functioning well enough to merit further development and research. The CSAI, based essentially on P. S. Adler's Transitional Experience stage theory, may also be of value to those evaluating cross-culture programming effectiveness as a pre- and post-test.[JCK]
Kafka, E.P. (1968). The effects of overseas study on world-mindedness and
other selected variables of liberal arts education (Doctoral dissertation, Michigan State University, 1968). Dissertation Abstracts International, 29, 481A. [I-017] The purpose of this study was to evaluate attitude change of college students enrolled in a summer study abroad experience. Effects of overseas study on world-mindedness and other selected variables of liberal arts students. 81 study abroad students completed a pre- and post-test questionaire consisting of a world- mindedness scale, dogmatism scale, and different values inventory. The responses of the study abroad students are compared to responses of 127 students who served as a control group. In addition, other variables are examined: academic grades, language skill, residential involvement, number of close foreign friends, descriptions on nationals, and variables related to national image. Results of one-way analysis of covariance revealed that no variables were related to change in world-mindedness. Subsequent analysis of "national image" variables indicated that exposure to foreign culture reinforced appreciation for homeland at the expense of nation visited. In addition, two clusters of variables were identified for those who achieved cross- cultural immersion. Lack of significant findings is related to the deficiency of instruments in measuring change, or to the relatively brief exposure (3 months) to the foreign culture.[JM]
Kauffmann, N.L. (1983). The impact of study abroad on personality change
(Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, 1983). Dissertation Abstracts International, 44, 5A. [I-020] The purpose of this study was to determine whether changes in selected aspects of personality functioning were associated with a trimester abroad experience. The study sought to provide descriptive answers to the following questions: (1) Was the direction and degree of change in personality functioning of students who went abroad significantly different from those who remained on campus? (2) Which of these changes (if any) persisted a year later? (3) Were particular types of experiences abroad systematically related to changes in personality functioning? Two groups of subjects were studied: (1) 126 Goshen students involved in the Study Service Trimester (SST) abroad; (2) 81 students from two other comparable Mennonite colleges (comparison groups). Data were gathered using repeated measures from the Omnibus Personality Inventory and through interviews debriefing the SST experience of the Goshen students. The purpose of the interviews was to support and validate the findings on the OPI profile as well as to identify the specific experiences abroad that resulted in significant personality changes. Compared with their counterparts, respondents who studied abroad increased in self-esteem and independence, in their interest in reflective thought, and in their interest in the welfare of others. These changes in personality functioning were most often attributed to the bicultural mechanism (the sum of all the SST experiences), the service assignment, and living in homes of families from the host country. Suggestions are offered for orientation and debriefing of SST participants, orientation of SST faculty leaders, and for the optional placement of students on location. Recommendations for further research are made.[JCK]
Kauffmann, N. L. (1983). The impact of study abroad on personality change.
Dissertation addendum. (Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, 1983). Dissertation Abstracts International, 44, 5A. [I-019] The purpose of this study, the comparison of the OPI means and standard deviations of Study Service Trimester (SST) and comparison groups, was to determine whether the changes in personality functioning associated with the SST experience during the fall of 1980 and winter of 1981 were replicated during the spring of 1981.The 1981 spring trimester results replicate and go beyond the findings of the fall 1980 and winter 1981 as outlined and discussed in the dissertation (Kauffmann, 1982). The SST experience as reflected in the results of the study carried out with participants in the fall, winter, and spring of the 1980-81 academic year appears to have had the most impact on three dimensions of personality functioning: (1) a changed world view and an increased interest in reflective thought as in the arts, literature, and language, (2) increased interest in the welfare of others and (3) greater intrapersonal development (increased self-confidence, self-esteem, independence, appreciation of sensual reactions and feelings). In addition, the spring trimester results indicated that the SST participants demonstrated greater growth than the Eastern Mennonite or Bethel College respondents in a fourth dimension of personality functioning-interpersonal growth (higher social extraversion (SE) mean change score). While there was no significant differences identified among and between participants in the fall and in the winter on the SE OPI scale, the DIG identified a number of students who indicated personal change in this area of personality functioning. Respondents who lived, studied, and served in China, Haiti, and Germany scored significantly higher on several OPI scales than those in Belize, Honduras, and Costa Rica. During the spring trimester participants in Germany or Haiti demonstrated more of a significant increase than those in Belize and Costa Rica. These results are most clearly associated with those OPI scales related to world view. It may be that the more radically different political, economic, and cultural environments of these three countries was more facilitative of growth.[JCK]
Kauffmann, N.L. (1985, May). The impact of study abroad on personal
development of college students (excerpt). Journal of International Student Personnel. [I-021] The Personality function of 126 study abroad students from a small religious college was compared with that of 90 nonstudy abroad students from two comparable institutions. The study abroad students had participated in a study/work program in various locations. Personality functioning was measured by the Omnibus Personality Inventory (OPI) (pre-and post-test design), and supplemented by interviews with trained interviewers. Results of univariate statistical analysis and content analysis of interviewers revealed three significant changes for the study abroad group: increased interest in reflective thought, increased interest in the welfare of others, and self confidence and feelings of well being. These changes persisted one year later. Coping with novel situations presented by a foreign culture seemed to be a powerful vehicle for encouraging personal development in college students.[JM]
Kelman, H.C. (1962). Changing attitudes through international activities. Journal
of Social Issues, 18, 68-87. [I-022] One often cited goal of international activities is to change hostile, suspicious, or indifferent attitudes into more favorable ones. This paper examines in a general way the barriers to achieving this goal. There are four types of activities designed to produce friendly attitudes cross-culturally: international communication, exchange of persons, foreign aid projects, and cooperative international ventures. Each of these activities is examined, and the strengths and limitations of each identified. The common underlying condition for success (favorable attitude change) in each of these endeavors is providing conditions which allow for positive person- to-person interaction. Therefore, activities need to be structured such that individual interaction occurs in supportive context.[JM]
Kenney, N.J. (1956). On being an exchange student in India. IIE News Bulletin,
31(5), 9-11. [R-011] A personalized account on the cross-cultural insights acquired by a Fulbright graduate student while pursuing his studies in India. Most important is the opportunity to develop sympathetic emotional understanding of the people and the culture and problems. Also important is the experience which encourages thinking about broad questions on the nature of "great" countries within the concepts of the world at large. Another aspect is discovering the relativity of cultures at the common human task of everyday living. Engaging in research generates distinctive personal encounters across cultures in which can be discerned other crucial patterns of contrasting cultures with respect to starter relationships, and host-home country interpersonal adjustments to each other. As a consequence of these observed cross cultural interactions of an American with Indians, it seems appropriate to emphasize that programs of student exchange might be successful as selections of American students are made based on an actively positive and respectful approach to Indians.[JU]
King, M.C., & Fersh, S.H. (1982). General education through international/intercultural
dimensions. In Johnson, B.L. (Ed.), New directions for community colleges: General education in two-year colleges, No. 40 (pp. 49-57). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. [O-045] In this presentation the authors share the thoughts that have influenced their actions at Brevard Community College and give examples of what they have been doing along with recommendations. The authors believe that, to live effectively and affectively in our rapidly evolving global society, individuals need additional kinds of knowledge and creative ways of becoming more self-educating; it is imperative, they advise, that American educators understand and appreciate the critical relationship of transcultural education and general education.They further point out that general education must be more concerned with the affective as well as the cognitive. Content-centered learning has relied heavily on accuracy and literalness at the expense of style and persuasive power.[JCK]
Klassen, F. H. (1967). Teacher education: The world dimension. Occasional
Papers on International Educational Exchange, 8. New York: CIEE. [O- 097]
Klemperer, L. von. (1976). How to read study abroad literature. New York:
Council on International Educational Exchange. [G-009]
Klineberg, O. (1966). International exchanges in education, science and culture:
Suggestions for research. The Hague: Mouton. [R-012] The present paper is based on (1) a number of documents prepared by the UNESCO secretariat, (2)an earlier working paper prepared for UNESCO by Rector De Vries together with the comments on it by the members of the ISCC, and (3) an extensive examination of published materials, largely of American origin. In the introduction, the author points out several sources of difficulty, some of which are discussed in greater detail later on in the paper. First, there is a large variety of possible exchanges; second, the differences in conditions (political, economic, cultural) in which the exchanges take place; third, a lack of clarity as to the goals; fourth, variation in the time-span of the programs; fifth, the limited nature of the research findings. The present memorandum is therefore directed not to evaluation alone, but to the wider topic of what social scientists have been doing and what they might still do, in the field of international exchanges.The author then points out that an educational program aimed at developing an elite which can aid in the administration and the government of a "new" nation may require a different structure from that designed to improve the educational level of a whole community.This paper further assumes that the ultimate goal of international exchanges is to contribute to friendly and peaceful relations among the peoples of the world, but that many more immediate goals relating to technical cooperation, changes in institutions, success in academic training, increased knowledge about foreign cultures, preparation for a useful career, readiness to cooperate in international undertakings, etc., may all require consideration. A distinction is drawn between two forms of international exchange, the first involving contact between people, the second consisting of transmission of materials or things. The paper insists that there can be no hard line between those two varieties of exchanges, since a visiting professor may bring along his books, or a biologist his exhibits. In concluding, the writer suggests that what is needed now is a theoretical framework, rather than the attempt to contribute short answers to particular questions. This would involve a thorough stock-taking, a systematic identification of the categories of problems involved, and of the manner in which they are interrelated. One of the steps would be a balder and bolder statement of the hypotheses which appear to emerge with enough probability to warrant future research and investigation.[JCK]
Klineberg, O. (1976). International educational exchange. The Hague: Mouton.
[E-014] As the authors point out in the preface, an investigation into international university exchanges had been conducted in seven countries.The data were obtained from statistics gathered by the university, interviews with university registrars or presidents, conversations with individuals knowledgeable about university exchanges at their own institutions or with personal experience of a foreign sojourn, with professors who have had contact with foreign students or with directors of study abroad programs.[JCK]
Klineberg, O., & Hull, W. F., IV. (1979). At a foreign university: An international
study of adaption and coping. New York: Praeger. [O-047] Working with a team of foreign scholars and researchers in Brazil, Canada, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Hong Kong, India, Iran, Japan, Kenya, the United Kingdom, and the United States and relying heavily on the local team's experienced judgments, the authors have collected data of basically two types with regard to the coping process:1) statistical data compiled from identical questionnaire instruments completed in the above 11 countries by 2,536 nonimmigrant foreign students, and 2) case study data, more clinical in nature, obtained through a series of longitudinal interviews throughout the first academic year with random samples of foreign students who were arriving at the study institution for their first foreign sojourn in the above 11 countries. Overall, the factors that were most important with regard to the foreign students' coping process at the foreign university were basically two: social contact with those local to the sojourn culture and area, and prior foreign experience as evidenced by previous travel.The authors did not find, to their surprise, that the presence or absence of a local student as a roommate played a very important role in the social contact experiences and feelings of the respondents. The important factor was rather the appropriate access to local individuals. Those who had traveled previously were also those who presented a generally more positive experience and were more pleased with their experience overall.[JCK]
Knepler, H. (1980, February-March). Beyond American expressland: Training
for international communication. Change, pp. 25-30. [O-048] Culture shock is defined here as a communicable disease; it is likely to have explosive implications, not only for the patient but for those with whom he comes in contact.The average American, the article claims, has no experience with ideology, his politics being as pragmatic as his work experience. American political life is, after all, singularly unideological. As a result he may see ideology in terms of what he is acquainted with: competition, a transfer from the realm of commerce. To avoid the idea that solutions are around the corner, the author prefers to look at what is being done to prepare the industrial managers and engineers. Most of the larger schools of business, management, and finance, especially those on the graduate level, have courses or programs or options related to the international scene. But these tend to be narrow in scope. The author then suggests that industry, first of all, should face the problem at an earlier stage than it does now. Recruiters should look for candidates with some cultural sensitivity. Second, the federal government can benefit its citizens and its international relations by diversifying its role by sending abroad, for example, in addition to the senior advisers, junior professionals.The job of mediating between different cultures and technology is likely to fall to the institutions of higher education. Room must be made for intercultural communication among other general education courses, not only in undergraduate programs, but on the graduate level as well.[JCK]
Koester, J. (1985). A profile of the U.S. student abroad. New York: Council on
International Educational Exchange. [I-053] This report is the first in a projected series which will document the results of nationwide surveys of U.S. students who study, travel, and work abroad. Beginning in 1983, CIEE included a questionnaire in the application for the International Student Identity Card which is contained in the Student Travel Catalog. The results of this survey provide a statistical information base about the U.S. student who crosses international boundaries. Demographic characteristics of these students, a description of their intended international experience, attitudional and behavioral characteristics are also included in the report. In addition, those students who had a prior international experience provided a self-assessment of the impact of that experience. The questionnaire was included in the 1984 application for the International Student Identity Card and appears again in the 1985 application. [JCK]
Koester, J. (1987). A profile of the U.S. student abroad-1984-85. New York:
Council on International Educational Exchange. This is the second report issued by CIEE on the results of the International Student Identity Card survey. Data collected were similar to data collected for earlier report. Koester presents a demographic profile of students who traveled abroad (gender, field of study, year in school, etc.) as well as a description of their intended purpose for their travel (work, study, tourism), and their motivation for the travel (desire for travel, influence of family/friends, interest in international events, and language courses). In addition, students were also asked about their major concerns (e.g., financial, safety, language, cultural adjustment). Those students who had already traveled abroad were asked to assess the impact of their prior travel.(JM)
Kohls, R. (1979). Survival kit for overseas living. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural
Press. [C-016] This is a practical, easy-to-understand guide for any individual who is planning to live, work, or study abroad. Topics include definition of culture, comparing and contrasting cultures, what makes an American, on becoming a foreigner, know your host country, and remedy for culture shock. There are also several exercises and checklists, and practical suggestions to help any individual have a more successful sojourn abroad.(JM)
Krawutschke, E. L. (1980). U.S. schools' credit policies for study abroad students:
A survey. World Higher Education Communique, 2(3), 33-34. [O-050] This paper investigates the credit policies of American schools on the basis of a questionnaire made up by the Committee on Study Abroad by United States Students (SAUSS) of the American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admission Officers (AACRAO), sent to its member colleges and universities. This questionnaire differed from others in that it did not ask for answers to specific questions, but rather, institutions were asked to submit a copy of their published policy or to describe their unwritten procedures in narrative form. This approach had two advantages. One, it did not put words in the mouths of respondents, and, two, it also elicited a wealth of unexpected and interesting information. One of the interesting facts that emerged from this approach: 118 institutions reported that their policy for determining whether or not to grant credits is to consult with another (usually larger and nearby) college or university. This was mainly true of the smaller colleges which had very few students studying abroad. The most significant item revealed by the SAUSS study was that, in almost every AACRAO institution, some students are enrolled in study abroad, which leads the author to the conclusion that study abroad is a pertinent issue of 94% of U.S. institutions and merits serious consideration in school policy statements and as an issue of discussion at educational conferences.[JCK]
Lambert, R.D. (Special Ed.). (1980). New directions in international education.
American Academy of Political and Social Science, 449. [O-052] A series of articles by 12 different authors, all having to do with new directions in international education, with a preface by Richard D. Lambert.[JCK]
Lambert, R.D. (1982). Language learning and language utilization. Profession,
82, 47-51. New York: Modern Language Association. [T-007] For the purpose of the discussion of language learning and utilization, the author classifies into two basic components the arguments in the debate on the importance of learning or knowing a foreign language, particularly as that debate affects language requirements in the school and college curriculum. He then presents a set of arguments for requiring students to study a foreign language which concerns a set of presumed indirect benefits; that is, valuable consequences of learning a foreign language that do not inhere in the language skill itself. While it is not the author's intention to disarm the current arguments entirely, he suggests, however, that they are decreasingly persuasive and that they have diverted our attention from another class of purposes for foreign language learning: that people should learn foreign languages so that they can use them. Also, it is essential that the student have an opportunity-or perhaps be required-to participate in a course in which the language he or she has studied is either the medium of instruction or the language of some of the assigned readings. The data comes from course catalogs and telephone inquiries of eight universities representing some geographic spread and different levels of "selectivity" to find courses in the social sciences that even mentioned a foreign language competency as either required or desirable. The data indicate that there is a fair distance to go, and the author makes a list of suggestions pointing out the obstacles, and what specific actions need to be taken.[JCK]
Lamet, M.S., Lamet, S.A., & Whitcomb, D.E. (1979). In-depth evaluation of
international student exchange: Report on a pilot study for UNESCO. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts, International Programs Office. [E-015] As a report on a pilot project, this study has two emphases: 1) documentation of the development and testing of the research instruments and overall plan; 2) presentation of the initial conclusions obtained from a study of the data collected at this stage. While the authors believe that the conclusions suggested in this report should be of interest to all those concerned with international exchange programs, they wish to emphasize at the outset the tentativeness of results from any pilot program. Basically, until both the instruments and overall work plan of a study such as this can be evaluated and modified, it would be foolhardy to attempt to draw firm conclusions. They present a program of research in progress, both with regard to approach and results. In Chapters 1 and 2 methodology used and the development of the research program are described. Chapters 3, 4, 5, and 6 represent the results of their analysis at this stage. Chapter 7 concludes with suggestions for future studies and recommendations on how to strengthen international understanding through study abroad.[JCK]
Lamet, S.A., & Lamet, M.S.(1981). The impact of international exchanges on
university students. International Understanding at School, 41, 7-8. Paris: UNESCO. [I-065] In an effort to answer the questions of how and what the experience of international educational exchange contributes to the lives of participants, the International Programs Office at the University of Massachusetts, assisted by a grant from UNESCO, carried out a survey of participants in its own reciprocal exchange arrangements during the 1978-79 academic year. he goal of this pilot study was to determine what kind of measurable short-term impact a year abroad had on participants in this exchange program. The method of inquiry involved questionnaires administered prior to departure and upon return, and a number of tape-recorded seminar sessions during the course of the students' year overseas. The questionnaires were designed to measure the assimilation of factual and cultural knowledge of the students' host countries or regions. A particular effort was made to find out what the students knew about the country and area in which they were studying. Seminars with the exchange students were held three times during the year. They were intended to allow for more nuanced expression of views and complemented the factual data obtained from the questionnaires. Although the project was initially conceived rather broadly to include a diverse group of participants, the best results were obtained from the U.S. students who attended universities in the United Kingdom. The questionnaires, which for this group measured the students' awareness of European politics, economic life, and culture, demonstrated that in all three of these areas the exchange participants were markedly affected by their experience. The study also attempted to determine whether the ethnocentricity of students shifted by examining three areas: cultural provincialism, economic provincialism, and political provincialism. Findings indicated that in the areas of cultural and political provincialism significant shifts occurred in the students' ethnocentric views, but that this did not hold true for the area of economic provincialism. The study also demonstrated that the exchange year modified individuals' views in the direction of an increased sensitivity to and sophistication toward other countries.[JCK]
Lamet, S.A., & Lamet, M.S. (1982, May). The effects of study abroad on students.
Paper presented at the meeting of the National Association for Foreign Student Affairs, Seattle, WA. [I-064] Some of the general conclusions that can be drawn from this very brief and selective summary of some of the findings for University of Massachusetts study abroad participants are: 1) perceived results of study abroad are clustered in basically four general areas relating to character building, gaining confidence, broadening one's horizon, and becoming more adaptable; 2) other benefits of study abroad, directly related to the study experience and to career employment, are also present, but seen as secondary in the respondents' mind. This, the authors note, is in contrast to educational systems elsewhere that demand an undergraduate student give more attention to his or her academic subject and career direction at a much earlier age.[JCK]
Lamet, S.A., & Lamet, M.S. (1982, November). The impact of study abroad on
selected groups of students. Paper presented at the meeting of the Council on International Educational Exchange, New York. [I-063] The authors' need for this paper resulted from the feeling that they should have a better understanding of a broader sample of students from the University of Massachusetts who went abroad as part of their undergraduate years, not only for the authors' own information, but also with the hope that their findings might lead others to pursue further and perhaps collaborative studies involving a much larger data base than they had hoped to survey themselves. A questionnaire was devised and sent to 764 study abroad participants from the University of Massachusetts for the period 1969-79. The questionnaire focuses on four general areas: 1) personal information about the student and the program he or she participated in; 2) the student's motivation for studying abroad; 3) the student's evaluation of his or her study abroad experience; and 4) the student's perceptions of the experience's impact both on later academic and career goals and on the student's personal development. Data from the questionnaire was computerized and analyzed using SPSS (the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences). It was found that a majority of the respondents (62%) attached a great deal of importance to their experience outside the classroom. Likewise, a very large number of respondents perceived the most important result of their experience as falling in areas relating to character development, gaining confidence, broadening one's horizon, and becoming more adaptable.[JCK]
Lampo, J.M. (1985). Successful re-entry: Assisting American students in readjusting
to their home campus after study abroad. Unpublished manuscript. [C-008] It is the author's thesis that in the past twenty years as America's awareness of the growing global interdependence increased, more and more colleges and universities initiated study abroad opportunities for students. These institutions have made significant efforts to prepare students for their overseas experience, but few have tended to the difficulties of students upon their return from overseas. Because successful re-entry will allow students to continue building on their study abroad experience, and because the re-entry transition is an opportunity for continued growth and development, it is time that colleges and universities discover what the re-entry phenomenon is and how it affects students, and accept their responsibility to develop the necessary support efforts to assist students in this "end" of the overseas experience.[JCK]
Lank, H.P. (1983). Coming home: An inquiry into the re-entry experience of
students who studied abroad. Unpublished manuscript. [I-026] This report attempts to answer several questions, like: Which students are most likely to have re-entry problems? Which variables are important in determining the nature of the returning students' re-entry experiences? Do returning students suffer from "reverse culture shock"? What kinds of problems do returning students have? What can colleges do to ease the re-entry of their students? From the author's review of the literature on culture shock, culture, and social psychology, a number of hypotheses emerged from which questionnaire and interview questions were developed. The study was predominantly qualitative-the focus was on: (1) the feelings and attitudes of the students before they left, while they were abroad, and when they returned, (2) the process of personal change and growth, (3) the process of reintegration and re-entry, and (4) the factors that created a great diversity of re-entry experiences. Culture shock was found to be disturbing, and reactions to it ranged from total assimilation to rejection of the "new" [home] culture. There were stages in "reverse culture shock"; they resembled Garza- Guerrero's stages in culture shock of mourning for the abandoned culture, cultural (re-) encounter, working through the problems, and reintegration. And, like culture shock, the "reverse culture shock" at the college could be seen in both a negative and a positive light. The author makes several suggestions for the ways that the re-entry problems of returning students might be made less painful, making the reader remember, however, that the pain cannot be avoided altogether, and that it should be seen as a sign of growth and development.[JCK]
Lauwerys, J.A., Nagai, M., & Taylor, H. (1967). National differences in the approach
to knowledge-Implications for the planning of exchange programs. Occasional Papers on International Educational Exchange, 6. New York: CIEE. [O-095]
Leonard, E. (1959). Selected general education outcomes, foreign travel and
study (Doctoral dissertation, Adelphi College, 1959). Dissertation Abstracts International, 1644. [I-016] This study was undertaken with several purposes in mind: 1) to review the foreign travel and study program at Adelphi College; 2) to find out what methods of evaluation had been used by scholars in determining the effects of foreign travel and study; 3) to apply those methods of evaluation which were suitable, as well as devising additional ways, for evaluating foreign travel and study. The principal method used in this study consists of before-and-after measurements of attitudes, opinions, general and specific knowledge, and language facility of American college students from the metropolitan New York area who went abroad during the summer and fall of 1957. Pertinent subjective data are also presented. Subjects in the study for whom both before-and-after data as well as subjective data were obtained consisted of 14 students who had completed their junior year of college, and who were preparing to teach. Their goals, to be achieved through foreign travel and study, and those of their instructor were ascertained and integrated. Attitude and opinion scales used were the C-R Opinionnaire (published by the Character Research Association of Washington University, St. Louis, MO), the Dimensions Scale used by Hilda Taba, the Study of Values by Allport-Vernon, and the Ethnocentrism, Fascism, and Political-Economic Conservatism Scales from Adorno. Other tests consisted of questions from the Inventory of American Orientation from Syracuse University's Maxwell Graduate School, and devised by the author, a general knowledge test, free-hand and outline map tests, and language questionnaires. Subjective data consisted of statements made by the students in their essays, diaries, written evaluations, progress reports, notebooks, and other assignments.
The principal findings and implications of the study are the following: 1. The students as a group were slightly less conservative after the trip abroad in that they strove more for new values rather than conserving old values; in other words, a general liberalizing of attitudes was evident. 2. The students as a group retained their stereotype of the "ideal" national culture, slightly changed their opinion of their own country (U.S.), and re-aligned their views of a foreign culture (France) after they returned from abroad. In general, the characteristics they assigned to European countries (England, France, Germany, and Italy) indicated greater understanding and less prejudice. 3. The students had slight knowledge of the geography of Europe before embarking for Europe. After traveling abroad, all the students demonstrated gains in their knowledge of Europe. These gains were not the result of formal study. 4. Students who attended a foreign-language-speaking university improved their understanding and skill in that language. Although gains were not noted by the faculty for those students who briefly traveled through foreign-speaking countries, gains were reported by the students in terms of attitudes, renewed interest in foreign languages, and in some cases regret that they had not mastered a language combined with determination to learn one at the earliest opportunity. 5. There was no statistically significant change in the ethnocentrism or authoritarianism of the group. There was, however, a statistically significant reduction in political-economic conservatism. Writings by the students indicated a reduction in ethnocentrism. They reported verbally (in seminars) a decrease in authoritarianism several weeks after their return home. 6. The students gained in self-perception according to their writings. The profile of the values of students (Allport-Vernon: A Study of Values) remained fairly stable. 7. Without exception, the students gained in their general knowledge of the current affairs, important persons, and the problems of the area visited. These gains were not the result of formal classroom work.[AUT]
Leonard, E.W. (1964). Attitude change in college programs of foreign study
and travel. Educational Record, 45, 173-181. [I-027] This study examined the impact of an eight month W. European study abroad experience on attitudes of 85 students at a small liberal arts college; the program incorporates extensive pre-departure training for study abroad students. Attitude change was measured by the C-R opinionnaire before and after the overseas experiences. Results of analysis suggested that attitudes of the most conservative students changed most, most liberal students changed least. Study also examined the impact of background variables on changes in attitude (gender, age, religion, IQ, SES, country of study). Only age was found to be related with older students changing more than younger. Substantial attitude change can be induced in a program that emphasizes orientation for foreign travel and study.[JM]
Ley, H. de. (1975). Organized programs of study in France: Some contributions
of stranger theory. French Review, 48(5), 836-847. [O-055] This paper suggests applications of one social science theme, that of stranger theory and stranger anxiety, to the areas of orientation and travel, the famille d'accueil system, the function of the participant group, and finally the goals of organized study abroad. His observations are based on attempts to apply some recent publications to direction of one organized study program in France, the Illinois Year Abroad Program in France. Possible objections to inappropriate organized travel are compelling since, the author suggests, stranger anxiety is best overcome not by intensive experience of the foreign environment but by self-definition within it. It is further argued that adaptation during an academic year in France need not reasonably imply rejection of American culture. Neither must it imply guilt or self-deprecation because of features of American culture which inevitably remain a part of themselves. As such, their appropriate adaptive model is not the immigrant but the cosmopolitan "marginal man." Such an analysis is an invitation to redefine and perhaps limit the notion of total immersion for student participants in light of the real conditions of organized study abroad. The most appropriate course, in terms of the teachings of stranger theory, the paper concludes, is to use program resources and institutions adaptively, in pursuit of a specifically cosmopolitan goal of adaption to a new environment abroad.[JCK]
Littmann, U. (1980, November). Research in international exchange: Why?
Paper presented at the U.S.-German Conference on Research on Exchanges, Bonn, West Germany. [R-013] This paper identifies some major research areas which may lead to joint cross-national research projects. The five potential research areas are purely scholarly interests, policy interests, accountability and self-study, interest in planning, and a secondary area, but not to be forgotten, personal interest. In concluding, the author pleads for tolerance: we cannot rely on any conventional wisdom, on common terminology, or on assuming that we know what each one of us is after. Not only the subject of this research, but the research itself is a cross-cultural experience.[JCK]
Lovejoy, E. P. (1980). Learning exercises. Unpublished draft. [C-017]
These learning exercises are intended to enforce the material covered in a planned book. They deal mainly with intercultural encounters and cover topics such as ethnocentrism on the part of the student once in the foreign environment.[JCK]
Lovejoy, E. P. (1980). Red flags: A technique for improved observation and
analysis for people in a new culture. Unpublished manuscript. [C-018] In this draft for a planned book on intercultural encounters, the author points out several "red flags," positive as well as negative ones. The basic message is that subjective reactions can be used as signals, or red flags, to alert the person who has the reaction that there may be a difference between the two cultures, and that a bit of exploration is in order. The point is made that not all red flags have to be negative ones. Important problems can also arise when we mistakenly think that something especially pleasant is intended, and we are wrong. The draft also alerts the reader to the fact that judgments which result from an inappropriate application of the meaning rules of your home culture to the events in a new culture, can create powerful barriers to good communication, and advises the reader to look for parallels between the two cultures in order to make progress in understanding both.[JCK]
Lowenstein, J., & Taylor, M.L. (Eds.). (1976). Study in the American Republics.
New York: Institute of International Education. [G-016]
Lulat, Y.G-M. (1984). International students and study-abroad programs: Bibliography.
Comparative Education Review, 28(2), 300-339. [R-015] The material in this bibliography was published from 1975 to November 1983. The 1975 cutoff date was determined on the basis of the fact that Spaulding and Flack's bibliography covers the period up to 1974. Two sets of concerns that are sometimes associated with international students have been largely ignored in this bibliography: those pertaining to the phenomenon of brain drain, that is, the migration of talent (usually from the Third World to the advanced industrial nations), and those pertaining to the teaching of English (or any other language) as a second language. The reason for the omission of material relating to these two areas is that neither area concerns international students exclusively. Brain drain and second language issues may or may not involve international students. In other words, the material covered in this bibliography is limited to issues that are intrinsic to the condition of being an international student. Also left out of the bibliography are dissertations, for outside the United States there are very few dissertations that have been done on international students, and those within the United States (mostly on either attitudes or needs of international students in the United States) are easily accessible in Dissertation Abstracts International. Unpublished conference papers have not been included either-some of these can be found in the Resources in Education index. The bibliography has been divided into 33 sections and each section further divided, where necessary, into two subsections: articles and monographs (books, reports, etc.).[JCK]
Lundstedt, S., & McEvoy, T.L. (1967). Selecting personnel for overseas
programs. Occasional Papers on International Educational Exchange, 7. New York: CIEE. [O-096]
Marion, P.B. (1974). Evaluation of study abroad. Washington, DC: National
Association for Foreign Student Affairs. (Eric Document Reproduction Service No. ED 089634). [I-028] Although the practice of journeying to a foreign country for educational purposes has an ancient history, it has only recently had a great impact on American higher education. A rapid increase in the number of programs and the number of student participants began in the mid-1950s and continues presently. This research project was conducted during the 1972-73 academic year with students who participated in study abroad programs. Its purpose was to increase the understanding of the effects of study abroad on American students. Participants represented a variety of backgrounds, interests, and characteristics, and most were juniors. The claims that study abroad results in significant changes toward more international, liberal, openminded, self-confident attitudes were not supported by the study's findings. Also, Theory that direct contact with a foreign people results in more positive attitudes toward them was not only not supported, but the opposite result was discovered. The results indicate that student's perceptions of the host country became more realistic and, therefore, less positive during the stay abroad. This research project was designed to accomplish the following purposes: to indicate what types of students change in what ways; as an aid in the selection of students for study abroad; to indicate the relationships between certain experiences and situations while abroad with attitude and value changes; as an aid in structuring study abroad programs; and to stimulate further research in this field. [JCK]
Markovits, A.S., & Keeler, J.T. (1978). The Euro-consciousness of American
college students: A survey of knowledge and attitudes at five "elite" institutions. European Studies Newsletter, 7(6), 1-22. [I-029] This paper focuses on a group which, while not entirely dissimilar to the larger population, is admittedly atypical and for that very reason of particular interest: students with an expressed interest in Western Europe at what may vaguely be defined as "elite" institutions situated in the Northeastern United States. These students tend to have traveled to Europe. A survey was administered in September 1977 to 329 undergraduates enrolled in Europe-related political science and history courses at Columbia, Cornell, Harvard, Middlebury, and Wesleyan. The fifty- question survey was conducted prior to the commencement of the courses to assure that the attitudes expressed would be more reflecting of underlying impressions and less reflective of a particular course or professor. With respect to knowledge, it seems likely that their Euro-consciousness is unevenly developed. The data appear to indicate, however, that increased contact with Europe does make an attitudinal difference. Casual travel and especially extended stays within Europe seem to increase not only knowledge of, but also affection for Europe. Even contact of the indirect variety-exposure to the European press-looks to be at least somewhat promising as a tactic for raising Euro-consciousness.[JCK]
Martin, J.N. (1986). Communication in the intercultural re-entry: Student
sojourners' perceptions of change in re-entry relationships. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 10, 1-22 [I-030] This study is a first attempt to examine one aspect of the re-entry process that has been mentioned in the literature and discussed by many returning sojourners. It examines the change in sojourners' relationships which occur as a result of their intercultural experience. The results seem to indicate that in the transition period of re-entry, when students are readjusting back to life at the university, grappling with new found independence, beliefs, attitudes, etc., that they do not get the support needed from the friends whom they considered to be the most important to them before they left. The results also indicate that there may be a difference in the degree of change and the kind of change that occurs in the relationships depending on the type of relationship. Sojourners reported that the relationships with parents (especially mothers) were improved after they returned from abroad. On the other hand, relationships with significant others (romantic) and with friends were reported to have changed in a negative way. Independence was a common reason given for change and was reacted to positively by parents, resulting in a more adult relationship with them, but seemed to be a negative factor in the relationship with significant others and friends. The sojourners reported that they now felt confined in relationships since they had become more independent. The data also suggests that there is a potential for growth in romantic relationships but that this may occur over a long period of time and may necessitate a period of frustration and difficulties after re-entry. Finally, the results suggest that the sojourners in this study found their most meaningful relationships with friends to have changed negatively as a result of their intercultural experience. The only relationships that seemed to have improved as a result of their experience were friendships with those persons who had similar overseas experience, or relationships with older brothers, sisters, and parents. [JCK]
Masters, R.D. (1971). Toward improved Franco-American university exchanges.
Occasional Papers on International Educational Exchange, 17. New York: CIEE. [O-104]
McCormack, W. (1969). Student exchange as instrument of international
understanding. International Educational and Cultural Exchange, 5, 27-31. [O-056] The role of student exchange as a force contributing to international understanding and good will is examined. The assumption that student exchange is not a decisive factor in improving international relations has two faulty assumptions: 1) about the nature of international relations and 2) about the nature of the cross-cultural process. The outcomes of study abroad that affect international cooperation and affiliation are: 1) facility or fluency in the language of the host country, 2) increased personal knowledge about the host society, 3) greater understanding of the students' own society, and 4) development of enduring friendships with citizens of other countries.[HDW]
McCormack, W. (1976). Problems of American scholars in India. Asian Survey,
16(11), 1064-1080. [P-008] The purpose of this article is to examine the implications of the 1972 guidelines issued by the Indian government and the declaration of the State of Emergency three years later. Basically the guidelines were to: (1) sharply reduce the number of foreign postdoctoral fellows from 60 to 70 per year to a maximum of 20; (2) require foreign faculty who wished to spend their sabbatical in India to obtain formal invitations from Indian universities; (3) prohibit foreign students, particularly undergraduates, from enrolling on a "casual basis," requiring that they be fully enrolled in Indian universities; (4) require Ph.D. candidates to be enrolled and to sit for examinations in degree programs in Indian universities; (5) forbid the appointment of resident directors- Indian or American-of foreign programs; (6) require that the leaders of short term summer programs be Indian, and that the number of programs be reduced from approximately 25 per year to a maximum of ten; (7) prohibit foreign scholarship on "problems relating to border areas, tribal areas, and other sensitive areas; sensitive political, regional, social (including communal and religious) themes, defense and security matters and any other field in which special restrictions may be imposed from time to time." In practical terms, the author points out, the guidelines have made graduate students and senior scholars more wary about their choice of research topics so as to facilitate earlier visa approval. In terms of impact of the new policies on student programs, the effects have been differential. The Wisconsin and University of the Pacific's Callison College programs both closed down for a time after the promulgation of the guidelines. On September 26, 1973, a government spokesman announced that the policies were to be modified, two weeks after a New York Times editorial prompted a wave of protest.[JCK]
McEvoy, T. T. (1968). Cosmopolitanism: An opportunity for higher education
in a shrinking world. Journal of Higher Education, 39, 84-91. [I-054] "Cosmopolitanism" is described as one human growth potential in personal development, the disposition to view events, ideas, values, and persons (including oneself) in a relativistic way. The potential for cosmopolitanism is seen in study abroad students who have successfully encountered and mastered a cross- cultural experience. Several examples of study abroad students who were successful and others who were unsuccessful in achieving cosmopolitanism are presented. Finally, several social and individual barriers to development of cosmopolitanism are presented and discussed.[JM]
McGhee, M. E. (1983). An assessment of the relation between study abroad
and cognitive development. Unpublished master's thesis, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL. [M-012] The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between study abroad and cognitive development as measured by Allen's assessment of Perry position. Subjects selected were University of California undergraduates who participated in three U.C. study abroad programs in France, or who studied on their home campus in California. Findings were to describe the changes in the students' developmental position over the academic year. The major findings of this study show no significant difference in the amount of change in cognitive developmental level experienced over an academic year by the undergraduates who studied abroad and by those who studied at home in America. There was a significant difference between students from the study abroad group who started off at different developmental positions. The students who started off with the lowest pre-test scores showed the greatest change, while those who had higher scores actually showed a tendency to regress on the post-test. The findings from this study suggest that study abroad does not in general accelerate the cognitive development of most participants. However, students studying abroad who start off at lower developmental positions appear to change more than those who begin at higher levels. It may be speculated that the experience of studying abroad meets the developmental needs of students at lower positions better than those starting out further along. Further study needs to be made to explore this relationship more fully. This study recommends further research which would compare students at lower developmental positions who study abroad with comparable students at home.[JCK]
McGuigan, F.J. (1958). Psychological changes related to intercultural
experience. Psychological Reports, 4, 55-60. [I-055] The purpose of this study was to determine whether intercultural experience affects various personality facets. Experimental subjects were 49 female students from a small private college who studied in Paris for a semester, lived with French families for a time, and then traveled through Europe for summer vacation. The experimental group completed a battery of tests before and after their overseas experience, including the Study of Values, the Security-Insecurity Inventory, the Bogardus scale of Social Distance, the World-mindedness scale, and several others. Their scores were compared to those of a nonstudy abroad control group. Results suggest that intercultural experiences lead to only two personality modifications that do not occur as a result of living at home: 1) development of higher social values, 2) development of more submissive social adjustment. It may be concluded that modifications of the personality as a result of intercultural experiences are relatively rare.[JM]
McIntyre, P.A. (Ed.). (1980). Study and teaching opportunities abroad (HEW
Publication No. 79-19301). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. [G-010] This booklet provides some useful perspectives as well as specific sources of information and assistance for undertaking various kinds of educational experiences abroad. The present edition provides current [1980] information about overseas travel and study in response to the continuing interest of Americans in the cultures and the activities of other nations as part of a growing awareness of the inescapable realities of interdependence in the modern world. It does not provide detailed answers to specific questions but rather, it is designed to refer the reader to the most appropriate sources of assistance. Each bibliographic reference in this booklet includes an address from which one can obtain the material or publication listed and at what price. The major headings include topics such as "Study Abroad," "How to Evaluate Overseas Study-Travel Programs," "Federal Financial Assistance," and "Teaching Abroad."[JCK]
McKeown, B., & Craig, R.B. (1978, February). Impact on student attitudes:
Mexican experience. Paper presented at the meeting of the International Studies Association. [I-031]
Melchiori, A., & Slind, M.G. (1987). Relationships of undergraduate study
abroad and subsequent academic performance. Unpublished manuscript. [I-062] Foreign study as it is conducted by United States universities is meant to be an academic experience. The study was an exploration of the relationships between foreign study as an undergraduate and grade point averages, patterns of foreign language study, and selected academic factors. Five groups were used in the study. The first study group was composed of 62 students who had studied abroad for a full academic year. The second study group was composed of 60 students who had spent a single semester program abroad. Comparison groups 1 and 2 were stratified random samples of undergraduates from Washington State University who had not participated or expressed an interest in study abroad. The numbers of students in these groups were the same as the respective study groups. The fifth group was composed of 58 students who had been accepted for study abroad at WSU, but who had chosen not to participate. The results were that students who studied abroad had higher GPAs after their experience than students who did not go. Those who studied abroad for a full academic year also had a higher mean final GPA than the students who had been accepted for study abroad but did not participate. The students who studied overseas enrolled for greater numbers of foreign language credits after their return to campus and spent a greater length of time working towards their bachelors degrees. The group which spent a full year in study abroad also had a greater number of students who had scholarships, honors at graduation, and honorary society memberships. No relationships were found between study abroad and the numbers of changes in academic major, numbers of students who had taken graduate level classes, or earned advanced degrees.[AUT]
Merritt, R.L. (1972). Effects of student exchange. In R.L. Merritt (Ed.), Communication
in international politics (pp. 65-94). Carbondale, IL: University of Illinois Press. [I-060]
Morgan, E.E., Jr. (1972). The American college student in Switzerland. A study
of cross-cultural adaptation and change (Doctoral dissertation, University of Pittsburgh, 1972). Dissertation Abstracts International, 33, 592A. [I-032] This was a study of the cross-cultural adaptation and change of 44 American college students in Basel, Switzerland. The purpose was to carry out an in-depth analysis of the personal and educational growth and development of the participants. The basic question researched was-what do varied educational experiences such as study abroad mean to the individual? To answer this question the foci of the study were on: change in values and attitudes; student assessment of impact; and adaptation patterns. Data was secured by using value- attitude scales, interviewing, and participant observation. The approach used was interdisciplinary drawing strategy, techniques, and analytical tools from social psychology and anthropology. Three value-attitude scales were administered before and after the experience. It was found that although group change was minimal and only significant in a few areas, in contrast, individual change and change relating to student clusters or types was extremely high. Individuals and clusters of individuals made exceptionally large changes on all the scales and this conclusion seems plausible-the nature and degree of change depends on an individual's developmental history and without specific intervention change may be positive or negative. Students' perceptions about change and change agents were assessed by asking each student to elaborate on how and what forces influenced or changed them. This data was recorded on tapes and transcribed to allow for content analysis. Students talked about change at length and over 490 kinds and a dozen agents of change were categorized. According to student responses over 76% of all change occurring was the result of family, leaving home, peer, and travel influence. One of the most uncomfortable findings was the importance of academics as change agents. Academic influence accounted for only 3% of all change mentioned. This raises severe questions about the justification of academics as a major component of the program. Adaptation patterns were assessed by isolating and rating students on 22 variables. Ratings were made on a five-point scale and comparisons were made to find similarity among individuals. A multidimensional scaling procedure was used with a hierarchical clustering scheme to arrive at a typology. Four types of clusters of students were extracted through the use of a computer program, and a type definer was selected as a case study for each type. The important points to be stressed about student adaptation are made explicit by examining the two extreme types-the cultural relativists (type A) and the culture opposites (type E). Each adapted differently to the cross-cultural experience so that it became a different kind of learning experience for each individual. The valued outcome simply stated is to have the individual acquire the ability to cope, adapt, and to empathize with people who are different. Type A, the cultural relativist was better able to do this as compared with Type E, the cultural opposite. Adaptation for the cultural opposite meant closer ties with American peers, an intense nostalgia for home, and a heightened nationalism as opposed to a movement toward global loyalties. It was found that in achieving the valued outcome some experiences are more profitable to individuals or clusters of persons than others. Although the patterns of adaptation may depend on what the person brings with him or her in terms of developmental history, cultural baggage, images of the host and home country, it was found that this could and should be modified to provide better learning opportunities for all participants in study abroad programs.[JCK]
Morgan, E.E., Jr. (1975). Study abroad: A process of adaptation and change.
International Review of Education, 21, 207-215. [I-024] American students participating in a study abroad program in Switzerland were studied over a three-year period (1968-70) to determine what behavior patterns associated with the cross-cultural experience maximize learning. A lengthy questionnaire was administered to 80 alumni of the Regional Council for International Education's Study Abroad Program in Basel in the 1968 and 1969 groups and an in-depth study was completed during a nine-month sojourn on 44 students in the 1969-70 group. Students were rated on over 50 variables with 22 variables defined precisely. A multidimensional scaling procedure was used with a hierarchial clustering scheme to arrive at a typology of student adaptation. A "cultural relativist" who was open to the experience learned more than the "cultural opposite" who drew closer to American peers in the experience. Implications for program design and student selection are given.[HDW]
Murray, J. R. (1965). Academic study abroad: Its present status. Occasional
Papers on International Educational Exchange, 5. New York: CIEE. [O-094]
Nash, D. (1976). The personal consequences of a year of study abroad. Journal
of Higher Education, 47(2), 191-203. [I-033] Using a design involving experimental and control groups, this study evaluates the effect of a year of study abroad on the self-realization of a group of junior-year students in France. The kind of self-realization proposed by ideologues and custodians of such programs is seen to be aimed at producing a liberal- international version of a typically modern individual. Using this model as a guide, a series of hypotheses regarding the effects on individuals of a year of overseas study were developed. The tests of these hypotheses involved the comparison of changes in the junior-year group and a group that remained at home. Some support for the hypotheses was obtained from assessments made at the end of the year abroad, but a later assessment, using less than adequate data, suggests that most of the personality changes derived from the overseas experience did not persist after return home. Further research is called for.[JM]
National Advisory Board on International Education Programs. (1983). Critical
needs in international education: Recommendations for action (Report to the Secretary of Education, No. 421 054 4221). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. [T-009] Recommendations for improving the quality of international education in the U.S.[JCK]
Neuhold, H. (1970, October). Moderne methoden in der wissenschaft der
internationalen beziehungen. Osterreichische Zeitschrift fur Auenpolitik. [R-016] This paper investigates and examines modern methods within the science of international relations, a science which in Austria is widely overlooked, and has as its purpose to bring to light the possibilities and limits of modern, in particular quantitative methods in the science of international relations. The methods examined in particular are the method of simulation, content analysis, the measurement of flows of communication, the factor analysis, and the employment of several methods. The author concludes that results using these methods have not, so far, established any significant contribution to that young science. For the most part, knowledge that has been acquired by traditional means is only being strengthened by their employment. Furthermore, the modern methods only scratch the surface. With more or less detail, all they do is grasp the symptoms of international relations. As concerns the reasons and motives that form the basis of the behavior of the participants on an international level, even the followers of quantitative methods depend on speculation. The modern methods, then, are limited to research of secondary phenomena. The result, or conclusion, of this paper is then the demand of this science not to limit itself to the employment of one or the other method, but rather to use the traditional and modern methods side by side since neither of the two approaches alone offers satisfying results.[JCK]
Oberg, K. (1960). Cultural shock: Adjustment to new cultural environments.
Practical Anthropology, 7, 177-182. [C-020] The symptoms, characteristics, and nature of culture shock are described. Tips concerning techniques for overcoming culture shock are given. Interactions of how specific characteristics and attitudes of individuals contribute to culture shock are pointed out.[BBB]
Oldt, E.A. (1968). Antioch education abroad. International Educational and
Cultural Exchange, 4(3), 20-26. [E-017] The development of the Antioch study abroad program is described in terms of its history, college and extramural support, and goals to be achieved. Evaluation of the program is made with the main conclusions being that participant responses tended to vindicate college programmatic aims. These data are seen as preliminary, however, as longitudinal assessment is necessary in order to ascertain changes in long-range perspectives.[BBB]
Pace, R. C. (1959). The junior year in France: An evaluation of the University of
Delaware-Sweet Briar College program. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press. [E-019] The major basis for the present evaluation of the Delaware-Sweet Briar Junior Year in France program is an attempt to find out what has happened in subsequent years to the students who had spent a year in France as college juniors. Some questions this evaluation raises pertain to continuing interest in foreign affairs and foreign culture, to a greater friendliness being exhibited towards people who are different from themselves, and to what value do the former students attribute to their year in France. The next major question is what kind of people choose to study abroad for a year. The postwar Junior Year Abroad students are then characterized as adaptive, eager, friendly, intelligent, generous, open-minded, and resourceful. It was further observed that postwar groups are more internationally-minded; and between the two postwar groups the balance of the evaluation tips towards those who had the Junior Year in France experience. Another question raised was what students should learn from such an experience, beyond what they would learn by staying home in an American college. Looking at his own evaluation in retrospect, the author notes that the direct comparisons among the Delaware, Sweet Briar, and Control groups were broadly classified as cultural and political. It is also pointed out that travel by itself cannot be related to the higher attainment of higher performance on most of the objectives included in testing. Viewing the total evaluation of the Junior Year in France reported here, one must conclude that participation in this program makes a difference in the subsequent lives of its alumni. It was noted that the alumni themselves believe strongly that their experience has influenced them in many ways. This belief is confirmed by much of what was revealed through direct inquiry into their activities, interests, attitudes, and opinions as young adults in their local communities.[JCK]
Paige, R.M. (1978, February). Students as sojourners: Research issues and
topics. Paper presented at the regional conference of the National Association for Foreign Student Affairs, Minneapolis, MN. [R-017] The purpose of this paper is to examine some of the dominant research issues and topics related to cross- cultural research involving U.S. student sojourners as the focus. The assumption that the participants will learn something from the sojourn experience has been subjected to surprisingly little empirical testing. It first defines some of the constraints and limitations which have discouraged the development of a research tradition in this area. Based upon this experience, the author feels that the following represents the major reason for the paucity of sophisticated research: (1) the lack of a dominant theoretical paradigm, (2) the lack of a dominant and commonly-accepted methodological strategy, (3) logistical constraints, (4) the practitioner's lack of research experience and the researcher's lack of applied, program experience, (5) resistance to evaluation research, and (6) the multiplicity of explanatory and learning outcome variables. The paper then proceeds to suggest some potentially interesting learning outcomes which might be assessed and some alternative factors which might be associated with these outcomes in the context of sojourn programs for U.S. students. Summarizing, the author remarks that the opportunity for research is always present although the problems identified in the introductory pages commonly work against the development of effective research enterprises. In the author's opinion, this is unfortunate because sojourn research can have both substantive theoretical importance and practical significance.[JCK]
Paige, R.M. (1984). State of the art research on campus international programming.
ISECSI Bulletin of International Interchanges, 21, 1-10. [O-062] This paper focuses on the programming dimension of the 1984 NAFSA conference session on Research, Counseling, Programs, and Policy: A Rubik's Cube. It points to the difficulties most educators have in properly integrating programming, counseling, and policy activities with research. It discusses three selected research studies on the integration of research and programming.[JCK]
Pell, C. (1983, November). Remarks. Speech given at the annual meeting of
the Council on International Educational Exchange, Washington, DC. [O-063] This address to the Council on International Educational Exchange in November 1983 discusses the effects of the Fulbright exchanges and the International Visitors Program with specific examples cited. A new exchange program for scientists, scholars, and leaders in environmental science and management is described. The need for adequate funding of these programs is presented.[HDW]
Pelowski, J.F. (1979). A study of the impact of the cross-cultural education
program, the winter term abroad, on the alumnae of Lake Erie College for women from 1953 through 1978 (Doctoral dissertation, Michigan State University, 1979). University Microfilms, No. 15664. [I-035] Since 1953, Lake Erie College has required all of its students to spend one term abroad in its established centers in France, Spain, Germany, Italy, Denmark, the Netherlands, or England. Most students participate in the Winter Term Abroad program during the junior year from January through mid-March. Having sent approximately 2,500 students to Europe from 1953-78, the college faculty and administration believe that the sojourn is an important requirement for graduation. The intent of this exploratory study is to ascertain the impact of the sojourn on former alumnae participants. A sample of alumnae was drawn from the total population of graduates from the classes 1954-78. The subjects were sent an extensive questionnaire. Because all students are required to participate in the term abroad, there was no control group of alumnae who did not participate included in the study. Four independent variables were identified as having a potential influence on the effect of the sojourn as stated by the respondents: 1) type of center attended, English-speaking centers or second-language centers; 2) length of stay at Lake Erie College, transfer students or four-year students; 3) academic major, foreign language majors or other academic disciplines; and 4) the General Studies program, alumnae who went through this four-year core curriculum and those who did not. In general, all alumnae assign very high personal value to the sojourn experience. They feel that the term abroad was an integral part of their education and cite personal and social growth as outcomes more often than academic or intellectual outcomes. The variable which seems to play a significant role in the sojourn is the quality of the hostnational family relationship with the student. In this study there is a positive correlation between the degree of comfort in the host family and the alumna's assigned value of the sojourn experience. Although more extensive research is called for, there appears to be a correlation between the type of independent study project and the overall impact of the sojourn. All participants conduct independent study projects while on the sojourn. It seems that those projects which necessitate interaction with host nationals for their completion are likely to have resulted in more positive feelings on the part of the alumna toward the sojourn experience. Greater cognitive and affective learning may result from the conduct of the independent study project if there is a builtin component in the project which requires the student to use the environment and/or human resources in the WTA center as well as library or museum research. Based on the independent variables, alumnae who went to a second language center, alumnae who went through the General Studies program, or alumnae who were transfer students placed slightly higher value on the sojourn than did those who went to English-speaking centers, those who did not have general studies, or those who were four-year students. (The independent variable of academic major was not used in the analysis because of the low number of subjects in the study who majored in a foreign language.) The overall results of the study have brought to the fore the significance of the Winter Term Abroad program for former participants. The overall design of the Winter Term Abroad, as an integral part of the Lake Erie College curriculum, beginning with the students' orientation, term spent abroad, and the reorientation, has provided skills they might not have developed without the sojourn experience. The term abroad has made a difference in the lives of Lake Erie's alumnae and continues to be an experience from which alumnae find both cognitive knowledge and personal resources in their lives. The sojourn is not something that happened last year nor twenty-five years ago: it is continually recreated as a singular event from which further meaning is found as life experiences evolve.[AUT]
Pfnister, A.O. (1969). Evaluation of undergraduate programs. Occasional
Papers on International Educational Exchange, 15. New York: CIEE. [E-031]
Pfnister, A.O. (1970). Improving the educational quality of study abroad
programs: Can standards be established? Occasional Papers on International Educational Exchange, 16. New York: CIEE. [O-103]
Pfnister, A.O. (1971). Evaluation of overseas study programs: Two case studies.
North Central Association Quarterly, 46(2), 307-313. [I-036] The assessment of the value of an overseas experience for U.S. undergraduates presents a challenge to college administrators. Two different approaches to evaluation of such programs are described. The first case study summarizes the impressions of a team that evaluated a unique study abroad experience: Goshen College's study/service trimester. The second case study is a review of the efforts of several study directors who developed evaluation procedures for American programs in Spain, particularly those associated with the University of Madrid. Key issues for evaluating programs are identified, including: problem of integrating academic and experiential components, and lack of quality control of curricula. Suggestions for dealing with these issues are presented and discussed.[JM]
Pfnister, A.O. (1972). Everyone overseas: Goshen College pioneers. International
Educational and Cultural Exchange, 8(2), 1-12. [I-037] Goshen college, a small, mennonite college, has developed an innovative study/service abroad program. Participation in this study/service trimester (SST) is required of all Goshen College students, usually during, or immediately following the sophomore year. The SST experience involves groups of 1,525 students with a faculty leader who work in various locations in Central America or the Caribbean. One key issue facing administrators at Goshen is the successful integration of the experiential learning at overseas site with the more traditional learning occurring on the home campus. Other issues emerging from this program are presented and discussed, including: how to maintain academic standards, appropriateness of required participation, successful selection/placement of students, pre-departure orientation, language requirements, and developing effective leadership. Results of ongoing evaluation of the program are also presented.[JM]
Pfnister, A.O. (1972). Impact of study abroad on American college undergraduates.
Denver, CO: University of Denver. [I-038]
Pfnister, A.O. (1973). The evaluation of study abroad programs of American
colleges and universities. North Central Association Quarterly, 47(4), 308-318. [E-020] In 1972, an evaluation team appointed by the Federation of Regional Accrediting Commissions of Higher Education (FRACHE) undertook a joint examination of study abroad programs maintained in Madrid, Spain, and Strasbourg, France, by American colleges and universities. The project was significant not only because it involved regional accrediting agencies but also because it was a cooperative venture. The programs that the FRACHE team examined on this evaluation tour were all variations of "halfway house" type programs, an arrangement somewhere between the branch campus and the completely integrated type, in which the student is attached in some way to a foreign university and attends classes taught for the most part by foreign university faculty but receives credits and grades as determined by consultation between the foreign professors and representatives of the American institution.The report furthermore points out that field directors need not necessarily have had previous experience in the country or the city in which the program is located; the terms of their stay, however, should not be less than two years. Studying abroad is not generally considered to be studying at a foreign university: not one of the programs evaluated could properly be said to be a program that enrolls its students in either the University of Madrid, or the University of Strasbourg. The students themselves report limited opportunity to meet with the Spanish students who are enrolled at the University. As concerns the constituent elements in the program, most of the programs include a mixture of study, travel, and independent activities.[JCK]
Pich, E. (No date). L'accueil des etudiants etrangers en France: Elements de
Bibliographie. Lyon: Universite Lyon. [R-014] A short bibliography dealing mainly with titles related to foreign students in France. A certain amount of items about foreign students in the U.S., Great Britain, and Germany are also included, the main emphasis, however, being placed on Francophones. Apart from the normal topics such as cultural and course-related items, this bibliography also includes sub-categories like linguistic prerequisites and the legal status of the foreign student in the respective countries.[JCK]
Pierce, B.H. (1979). Junior year in Britain. Philadelphia: Peterson's/Lipincott.
[G-014] This is a book about direct enrollment at British universities for the American undergraduate interested in a junior year abroad. It is not about independently sponsored or autonomously run American programs in Britain unless they offer direct access to undergraduate degree courses at a British university. Rather, it is solely a guide to one-year, nondegree study opportunities at British universities for the American undergraduate who is interested in complete but temporary integration into the British university system. Included in this book are 53 university institutions, six of which are branches of the federated University of Wales and twelve of which are branches of the University of London.[JCK]
Price, B.L., & Hensley, T.R. (1978, April). Impact on French students of a study
abroad program. Paper presented at the meeting of the Ohio Modern Language Association, Columbus, OH. [I-039] Authors report results of a study of attitude change of students who participated in a Kent State University Geneva Semester program. Study measured the attitudes of students (n=18) before and after the program (self- esteem, tolerance for ambiguity, career goals, attitudes toward and interest in international affairs, and attitudes toward the United Nations). Findings revealed that there was little change in world-mindedness and support for UN (however, students scored high on this scale prior to the overseas experience) and only modest increases in self-esteem, tolerance for ambiguity, interest in international affairs, attention given to international affairs, and career aspirations.(JM)
Pyle, K.R. (1981). International cross-cultural service/learning: Impact on student
development. Journal of College Student Personnel, 22(6), 509-514. [I-040] This study investigated the impact of a cross-cultural service/learning experience on the personal development of 25 college students. These students spent one month working in a remote mountain village in Jamaica. The students completed the Student Development Task Inventory (SDTI) before and after the overseas experience. The SDTI measures three general areas of development: autonomy, purpose, and interpersonal relationships; with nine sub-areas and a total inventory score yielding 13 variables. The experimental overseas group scores were compared to scores of a nonequivalent control group (N=14). Experimental group scores were significantly higher than the control group on four of 13 variables: total inventory score, overall autonomy task score, mature life plans (subtask). Control group's scores did not achieve significance for any of thirteen variables. Results suggest that even short-term cross-cultural experience has impact on student autonomy, achievement of mature life plans, and overall development.[JM]
Rice, G.W. (1968). Study abroad: Some problems and prospects. Vidya, 2, 37-
45. [O-064] This article examines the problems of: (1) quick, faddish answers to the problem of building an international dimension in college programs, (2) the nuisance of study abroad programs for many university leaders overseas, and (3) the fact that it is by no means always clear that study abroad programs are of educational value; it makes particular reference to the kinds of goals which can and cannot always be served by undergraduate study and travel abroad and the more salient factors likely to affect the relative success or failure of such programs. The author has drawn from a review of research in this area, his own experiences as Dean of the Basel Study Year Abroad sponsored by the Regional Council for International Education. This article is concerned primarily with study year abroad programs in Europe for American undergraduate students and a few comments on summer "study" tours. As part of the conclusions, the author points out that we should first consider what we can do to expand study year opportunities. In addition, there should be a selection process to assure that participants have at least certain minimum qualifications, specific educational objectives should be established as well as opportunities for maximum personal contact, and of course, there must be professional direction and supervision. Such program design would at least help eliminate what the author regards as the more basic weaknesses of summer travel arrangements made by the tourist industry, where the need to secure a certain number of participants can rule out any meaningful selection process, and where specific educational goals are illusive or simply subordinate to travel for the sake of travel.[JCK]
Richardson, J. (1980, November). Research on exchanges and U.S. foreign
policy. Paper presented at the U.S.-German Conference on Research on Exchanges, Bonn, West Germany. [R-018] The author laments that, historically, U.S. government sponsorship of exchange programs has not been accompanied by serious effort to conceptualize a policy framework, define objectives, specify criteria, and evaluate results. His impressionistic sketch of possible elements of the U.S. policy framework suggests further, broad areas for exploration in developing a research design. It must be useful, he points out, to attempt at least some reasonable hypothesis or hypotheses as to particular processes of communication, learning, elite recruitment, etc. which can be expected to contribute to the kinds of cultural, political, or economic change considered desirable and attainable in particular bilateral or multilateral relationships or other international or transnational contexts.[JCK]
Ruffino, R. (1983). An assessment of organized youth mobility in Europe.
Occasional Papers in Intercultural Learning, 3. New York: AFS. [M-013] This article is based on a study of 15 examples of organized youth mobility in Member States of the European Community plus Spain and Portugal. The examples described were selected because they are significant in many ways and because they cover the whole EEC area. The study undertaken focuses on the participants in the exchange. The conclusions drawn from the studied cases are that educational establishments and public bodies at the local level are more directly concerned with the practical aspects of the exchanges and the more immediate linguistic benefits, whereas international institutions and voluntary agencies are more interested in idealistic aims, reflecting their institutional principles and harmonizing with the ideals motivating voluntary workers to give their services.[JCK]
Salter, C.A., & Teger, A.I. (1975). Change in attitudes toward other nations as
a function of the type of international contact. Sociometry, 38, 213-222. [I-041] The hypothesis that cross-national contact leads to enhancement of attitude towards the countries visited was tested by controlling for two problems in earlier studies: a) the confusion between genuine and superficial contact, and b) the failure to specify the dimensions of contact and of attitudinal measurement. 35 students in two groups were given questionnaires before visiting Europe to work or travel (Time 1), on the return plane (Time 2), and after being home a period equivalent to time abroad (Time 3). 38 control students in two groups were also tested at Time 3. At Time 2 the travel group was significantly more positive than before on all measured attitudinal dimensions, including those with which they had little or no contact. Relative to the travel group, the work group experienced more negative outcomes and indicated significant negative attitude change towards the countries worked in. The results were consistent with a generalization of affect theory.[AUT]
Sampson, D.L., & Smith, H.P. (1957). A scale to measure world-minded
attitudes. Journal of Social Psychology, 45, 99-106. [I-042] An instrument has been developed to measure world-mindedness, defined as "a frame of reference, or value orientation, favoring a world view of the problems of humanity, with mankind, rather than the nationals of a particular country, as the primary reference group." This instrument is used frequently in investigations of the impact of study abroad on attitude changes in students. The instrument contains 32 items that pertain to eight dimensions of world-minedness. Reliability tests indicate that the scale can be reliably used for measuring individual attitudes. Research use of the scale has also indicated both internal and external validity.[JM]
Sanders, I.T., & Ward, J.C. (1970). Bridges to understanding: International
programs of American colleges and universities. New York: McGraw-Hill. [O-065] A review of study abroad and overseas service programs produces, among others, the following conclusions:
1. If the central goal of such programs is to give the student a real immersion in another culture, he should enroll as a regular student in an educational institution or work with an agency of the foreign country. 2. The arrangements made by United States colleges and universities with foreign universities for accommodation of specified numbers of students, with reciprocal programs on the home campus if desired, would lead to much better interinstitutional cooperation than now obtains. 3. In the final analysis, the American student abroad is a foreign student in the host country. We have much to learn from the experience of foreign students in the United States about what is and is not appropriate in programs of study and work overseas.
In the conclusions to the chapter on Exchange Programs and the Foreign Student the author points out that although many United States colleges and universities have created supplementary organizational structures to deal with foreign students, they have as yet not faced up to the more fundamental aspects of the role and purpose of foreign students in our institutions of higher learning. To deal with some of these questions, United States universities will need better internal coordination, creation of a dialogue between the various departments and schools, a more internationally-oriented curriculum, and greater concern with the relevance of the curriculum to future employment possibilities. These needs are as central to the successful training of foreign students as they are to the fulfillment of the central purposes of the university itself.[JCK]
Schools make news: Study-service abroad. (1969, October 18). Saturday
Review, p. 84. [O-059] A program under which every student at Goshen College (Indiana) is sent to a developing country for fourteen weeks of study and Peace Corps type service is described.[HDW]
Scully, M.G. (1978, October 10). Europe restricts foreign students. Chronicle
of Higher Education, p. 10. [O-061] An article dealing with Barbara B. Burn's analysis and essay on the admissions policies in European countries taken from her report entitled Higher Education Reform: Implications for Foreign Students.[JCK]
Sell, D.K. (1980). Attitude change: Kent State in Mexico. Kent, OH: Kent State
University. [I-043]
Sell, D.K. (1981, May). Research on attitude: Prospects for future research.
Occasional Paper. New York: National Association for Foreign Student Affairs. [I-044]
Sell, D.K. (1983, May). Changing student attitudes through foreign study
programs: A researcher's perspective. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Society for Educational, Cultural, and Scientific Interchanges, Cincinnati, OH. [I-058] The purposes of this manuscript are threefold: 1) to provide a blueprint or plan of action which can be used to investigate the effects of a particular foreign study program, 2) to cite research which has been successful in detecting attitude change, and 3) to help the researcher avoid the pitfalls that occur when one lacks an extensive research background in the area. Although the paper is subdivided into four sections<197>What do you measure?, When do you measure it?, How do you analyze the data?, and What do you do with the results?-some inevitable overlap occurs.[JCK]
Sell, D.K. (1983). Research on attitude changes in U.S. students who participate
in foreign study experiences: Past findings and suggestions for future research. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 7, 131-147. [I-045] Little research has been conducted on attitude change in U.S. students who participate in foreign study experiences. This is especially disconcerting given the number of programs available and participants involved. This research review includes five studies utilizing one-time questioning of program participants and 15 articles employing analysis of pre- and post-sojourn questionnaires. Unfortunately, attitude change is seldom verified empirically in these works. Possible explanations include loosely structured experimental designs, infrequent use of follow-up studies, the lack of an established theoretical base, and perhaps most importantly, the lack of a consensus concerning what to measure. Suggestions for future research include: the study of specific variables thought to facilitate attitude change, analysis of subgroups of students similar on a particular characteristic or ability, and measurement of behavioral competencies.[AUT]
Sell, D.K., & Brown, S.R. (1984). Q Methodology as a bridge between qualitative
and quantitative research: Application to the analysis of attitude change in foreign study program participants. In J.L. Vacca & H. A. Johnson (Eds.), Qualitative research in education: Selected papers from the midwest regional conference. Kent, OH: Kent State University, College of Education. [R-006] This report investigates the advantage of Q methodology over traditional statistical methods in assessing the impact of foreign study on participants' attitudes? Past research has uncovered a discrepancy between self- reports and objective measurement of personal growth. Program directors and participants repeatedly attest to important personal development resulting from cross-cultural experiences, yet attitude change is seldom verified empirically. Q methodology, the authors note, offers an alternative falling somewhere between the two extremes. Through rank-ordering of statements or objectives, individuals construct their viewpoints subjectively. Yet the resulting Q sorts are analyzed objectively through correlational and factor analyses to determine both composite perceptions and each individual's relationship to them. Pre- and post- administrations of the same Q sort are employed in determining perception changes. This report cites Taba (1953), McKeown and Craig (1978), and Sell (1980) who have employed Q methodology successfully in detecting individual participant change within the context of the group.[JCK]
Sell, D.K., & Craig, R.B. (1982, April). Intercultural awareness: An analysis of
perception change in American students in Mexico. Paper presented at the meeting of the Louisiana Tech Conference on the Americas, Ruston, LA. [I-059] The author investigates the advantage of Q methodology over traditional statistical methods in assessing the impact of foreign study on participant attitudes? Past research has seldom verified attitude change empirically. Researchers have attempted to detect significant change on such abstract concepts as world-mindedness and ethnocentrism. When no statistically significant increase or decrease is uncovered, they conclude that the foreign study experience had no impact on its participants. In direct contrast to this conclusion, program directors and participants repeatedly attest to important personal development resulting from cross-cultural experiences. Q methodology offers an alternative to the purely objective and subjective analyses reported above. Through the rank-ordering of adjectives or statements, individuals construct their viewpoints subjectively. Yet the resulting Q sorts are analyzed objectively through correlational and factor analyses to determine both composite perceptions and each individual's relationship to them. Pre- and post- administrations of the same Q sort are employed in determining perception changes. In the four studies reported in this manuscript in which Q methodology was utilized, a remarkable amount of diversity was uncovered in participant perceptions of the host country, its nationals, and themselves. No longer should we, as researchers, be concerned solely with whether a student has become more "world-minded" or less "ethnocentric." What must be examined is the diversity of viewpoints, how these views shape a participant's experience, and how the experience in turn modifies his initial perceptions. Cultural awareness does not require loving another culture above one's own; it does, however, involve personal growth and a more mature, realistic way of viewing these cultures, the author contends.[JCK]
Sell, D.K., & Craig, R.B. (1983). The use of Q methodology to investigate
attitude change in American students who participate in foreign study programs: A review of the literature. Operant Subjectivity, 7(1), 14- 29. [R-029] This article investigates the advantage of Q methodology over traditional statistical methods in assessing the impact of foreign study on participant attitudes? Past research, the authors note, has seldom verified attitude change empirically. Researchers have attempted to detect significant change on such abstract concepts as world-mindedness and ethnocentrism. When no statistically significant increase or decrease is uncovered, they conclude that the foreign study experience had no impact on its participants. In direct contrast to this conclusion, program directors and participants repeatedly attest to important personal development resulting from cross-cultural experiences. Q methodology offers an alternative to the purely objective and subjective analyses. Through the rank-ordering of adjectives or statements, individuals construct their viewpoints subjectively. Yet the resulting Q sorts are analyzed objectively through correlational and factor analyses to determine both composite perceptions and each individual's relationship to them. Pre- and post- administrations of the same Q sort are employed in determining perception changes, and a follow-up administration detects whether the changes are lasting ones. In the five studies reported in this manuscript in which Q methodology was utilized, a remarkable amount of diversity was uncovered in participant perceptions of the host country, its nationals, and themselves. No longer should we, as researchers, be concerned solely with whether a student has become more "world-minded" or less "ethnocentric." What must be examined, the authors suggest, is the diversity of viewpoints, how these views shape a participant's experience, and how the experience in turn modifies his initial perceptions.[JCK]
Shank, D.J. (Chair). (1963). Opportunities and problems involved in the study
abroad of U.S. students. College and University, 38, 434-460. [O-066] A transcript of a panel in which Stephen Freeman presents the state of undergraduate study abroad, David Wodlinger discusses graduate study abroad, Ann Pannell describes the programs of Sweet Briar College, and William H. Allaway describes the beginning program of the University of California.[HDW]
Sikkema, M., & Niyekawa. A. (1977). Design for cross-cultural learning.
Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press. [C-022] This book is a report of a field training project in social work education which emphasized learning to deal with cultural differences. Although the project at hand has much in common with the Peace Corps in that both involved experiential learning, there were distinct differences, the authors advise. In this project, the student had no definite role to play in the foreign culture. He was there only to learn the culture. This lack of a specific role gave the student only a minimum structure in which to operate. The major aim of this project was to prepare social workers who could function effectively in any culture or subculture, inside or outside their own. The lack of structure in the learning situation also forced the student to face ambiguity and gradually build a structure that would serve as a cultural framework of his own. The project shows how active understanding of other cultures may be achieved through experiential learning and how such a learning experience can lead to the greater personal development of the participants.[JCK]
Smith, C.T. (1971). The relationship of program characteristics of the
Kalamazoo College foreign study programs to changes in participants' attitues, values, or interests (Doctoral dissertation, University of Michigan, 1971). Dissertation Abstracts International, 31, 3909A. [E-022] The purpose of the investigation was to explore the relationships between foreign study programs at Kalamazoo College and attitudes, values, and interests of participating students in Africa, France, Germany, and Spain during the 1966-67, 1967-68, and 1968-69 academic years. Questionnaires assessing self-perceived changes in the student were administered. It was found that program characteristics related to attitude, value, and interest development were breadth of exposure to non-Americans, presence of an American subculture, overall course differences, program satisfaction, helpfuless of hosts, and relevance of courses to student's majors, respectively. No greater changes were found for students enrolled in "American style" versus foreign institutions. Students who lived with host families showed the greatest change. [BBB]
Smith, H.P. (1955). Do intercultural experiences affect attitudes? Journal of
Abnormal and Social Psychology, 51, 469-477. [I-046] This study examined 1) the impact of intercultural experiences on changes in attitudes and behavior; 2) the influence of pre-existing attitudes on subsequent attitude change. There were four experimental groups who all spent a summer in Europe; 136 students who lived with families, 26 volunteer workers, 44 tourists, 40 student travelers. The control groups (3) consisted of comparable individuals. All subjects completed the world-mindedness scale, the California Public Opinion Scale, and the Democracy Scale. Interviews were also conducted. There were four major findings: 1) changes in "internationally-oriented behavior" in four experimental groups, not in control groups; 2) no significant attitude change as measured by instruments for any experimental or control group, interview data did reveal increased favorable attitudes in experimental groups; 3) pre-existing attitudes are a better predictor of attitude change in intercultural experience than information about experience itself; 4) there are significant personality differences between those exceptionally world-minded and those exceptionally nationalistic.[JM]
Smith, H.P. (1957). Effects of intercultural experience: Follow-up investigation.
Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 54, 266-269. [I-047] This study was a follow up study to earlier investigation of the impact of various short-term cross-cultural experiences (travel, work, study) on attitude and behavior changes (see Smith 1955). The purpose was to determine if change persisted. Four and a half years after the original study, questionnaires were mailed to 205 original subjects in four different experimental groups and to 10 subjects in the stay-at-home control group. In original study, attitude and behavioral changes were measured by world-mindedness scale, California Public Opinion Scale, and Democracy Scale, as well as by data gathered in interviews. 156 questionnaires were returned. Major findings were: 1) there were no changes in "internationally-oriented behavior" from the original study, i.e., both short-run and long-run behavioral effects of the overseas experience are limited; 2) although original study revealed no short-run changes in general social attitudes, during subsequent four and a half years, students became significantly less world-minded, less ethnocentric, less authoritarian, and more conservative, i.e., events since intercultural experience had more impact than overseas experience itself.[JM]
Smith, M.B. (1956). A perspective for further research on cross-cultural education
as a research area. Journal of Social Issues, 12(1), 56-68. [R-019] This review of needed research in the light of recent and current work has been an attempt to locate the gaps in cross-cultural education. In pointing to a number of territories that call for exploration, it has, however, not been possible to summarize what is known about the regions that have been more carefully studied. Social scientists who have participated in research on cross-cultural education have discovered in the area rich potentialities for research on problems of theoretical interest. Administrators and practitioners engaged in exchange programs have become alert to the social scientist's potential contribution, and the author hopes that more social scientists will avail themselves of the opportunities in this area newly opened for research.[JCK]
Snell, D.K. (1987). Hallmarks of successful programs in the developing world:
The GLCA Latin America Program. Occasional Papers on International Educational Exchange, 22, 16-19. New York: CIEE. [O-043] The Great Lakes Colleges Association Latin America Program was established in 1964 so undergraduate students, regardless of major, would have the opportunity to complete degree requirements while immersed in a Latin American culture. The program's purpose is "to go beyond individual college efforts and to take measure to assure an impact on undergraduates which is impossible without the broader expectations of joint planning, the stimulation of a larger academic community, the contagion of shared experimentation, and the impetus of special funds." Bogota is used as the site for the program because it offers a number of academic, cultural, and recreational opportunities. The program is divided into three stages, a summer in Mexico, and a fall and spring in Bogota.[JCK]
Spaulding, S., & Flack, M.J. (1976). The world's students in the United States.
New York: Praeger. [R-020] This book asks questions pertaining to what happens to foreign students while in the U.S., and deals with structure, administration, finances, as well as new approaches to technical cooperation in the preparation of human resources for development. It further addresses the problems of migration of talent and skills, and foreign international organizational research. The literature surveyed represents a collection of separate items, brought together only by the criterion that most of them were published or issued in the period studied, and because, by topic of inquiry, they fit the frame of the project at hand. What most of these studies on foreign students produce, the book notes, are aggregate data, elicited and subsequently analyzed around conventional categories of factors. They represent variants on what are now the conventional approaches to social science research. The authors have found little use of less conventional approaches such as depth studies. Adjoined to the book is an appendix which presents a collation of the original list of working hypotheses with findings in the literature surveyed.[JCK]
Spencer, C.S. Jr., & Stahl, V.R. (Compilers). (1983). Bibliography of research
on international exchanges. Washington, DC: U.S. Information Agency, Youth Exchange Staff. [R-021] This bibliography was conceived by the Youth Exchange staff of USIA as a reference both for exchange program managers and for designers of new research on international exchanges. Omitting mostly descriptive and historical statements, it focuses on works in English since 1945 that constitute serious efforts at research or evaluation on some aspect of the international exchange of persons. A few selected foreign publications in English are also included.[JCK]
Spencer, R.E., & Awe, R. (1968). International educational exchange: A bibliography.
New York: Institute of International Education. [R-022] A bibliography, undertaken in response to recommendations from the Seminar on Research in Programs for Foreign Students, the Institute of International Education, and the National Association for Foreign Student Affairs. The purpose of the authors was to facilitate research in the field of international educational exchange; to indicate to researchers in the field the amount of data and information available from the fields of psychology, sociology, and anthropology; to emphasize the need for more longitudinal and large-scale research effects; to inform those interested in what has been accomplished in order to make the congruence between research and practice closer; and to lead researchers into new areas of investigation by outlining what has already been done.[JCK]
Spier, P. (1968). Predictive Factors in Selection for Overseas Study.
Unpublished manuscript, Antioch College, Yellow Springs, OH. [O-072]
Stauffer, M.L. (1973). Impact of study abroad experience on prospective
teachers (Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, 1973). Dissertation Abstracts International, 34, 2448A. [I-048] This study examined the change in attitude among prospective teachers after a field experience (one-term practicum in Sierra Leone). Instruments used to measure attitude change were the Teaching Situation Reaction Test (TSRT) and the Teaching Career Survey (TCS). The overseas group completed the instruments before and after their practicum. Their scores were compared to those of the prospective teachers who did not go abroad (numbers not given in DAI summary). Results revealed that on the post sojourn TSRT, the overseas group placed more emphasis on pedagogical interests, international concerns, and social concerns, than the control group. There was a discernible difference between prospective teachers who participated in a foreign study experience and those who remained at home. Results attest to the conceptual and experiential gains made by foreign study students in cross-cultural understanding, and the altered discovery of self.[JM]
Stavig, R. (1966, February 19). Why study abroad pays off. Saturday Review,
pp. 82-90. [P-010] More than 90% of Kalamazoo College (Michigan) students study abroad. The benefits include academic studies-usually general education-and the development of a new perspective on the use of language, history, and his or her self.[HDW]
Stephens, C.J. (1986). Computer applications in the study abroad offices of
American colleges and universities. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Boston University, School of Education. [M-010] The Problem:The purpose of this qualitative research study was to investigate the use of computers in study abroad offices of American colleges and universities. A review of the literature shows that their use in this area is very recent. There were four major objectives: 1) to describe and analyze technological applications in the study abroad community, 2) to identify future technological applications, 3) to make recommendations about technology and study abroad, and 4) to compile a list of practical suggestions for beginners computerizing their operations. Methodology: 26 people involved with study abroad were interviewed by telephone and in person at the National Association for Foreign Student Affairs national convention held in May 1986 in San Antonio, Texas. Findings: Three major themes for computer applications in the study abroad office emerged: 1) office automation, including word processing and financial spread sheets, 2) database management, and 3) networking or intercommunication. There are just a few study abroad offices utilizing computers on any regular basis. Other offices are investigating the possibilities. Future suggestions include: 1) a national study abroad database, 2) computer-assisted instruction for advising and orientation, 3) online searching, and 4) videodisc technology for orientation. Conclusions:
1. An awareness of computers is prevalent, although many people are not computer literate. 2. NAFSA is providing some opportunities to improve computer literacy. 3. Little funding for current and future development exists. Recommendations: 1. Establish a formal national committee to plan for automation. 2. Seek out funds by grant writing or corporate donations. 3. Purchase microcomputers for each office or gain access to campus mainframes. 4. Establish a technology column in the NAFSA Newsletter. 5. Join CONFER and BITNET for networking purposes. 6. Provide computer training by NAFSA or data consultants. 7. Participate in microcomputer users' groups. 8. Educate study abroad office staff by subscribing to computer journals. 9. Participate in online searching offered by libraries for cross-cultural orientation sessions.[AUT]
Stewart, E.C. (1972). American cultural patterns: A cross-cultural perspective.
Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press. [C-023] Stewart compares and contrasts values of non-Western (traditional) cultures with those of the Western (primarily U.S.) cultures. He gives a very thorough description of the values, patterns of thinking and behaving in the United States and then describes how these patterns are often diametrically opposed to those in other cultures. Values include: collectivism-individualism, views of nature and the world, time orientation and activity orientation. He includes examples of how these differences in value orientation result in misunderstandings and conflicts for professionals working in cross-cultural contexts (e.g., overseas technical assistance workers, international student advisers, teachers of English as a second language, etc.).(JM)
Students abroad: Guide for selective foreign education. (1979). Washington,
DC: National Association for Foreign Student Affairs. [G-012]
Study abroad. (1981). Paris: UNESCO. [G-013]
Information published in this volume is supplied either directly by the sponsoring institution, or through official government channels, in response to UNESCO's biennial inquiries. All genuine international study opportunities at post-secondary level are published, with some exceptions. For each offer of assistance or program of study selected for inclusion essential details are listed: its nature and content, subject field and level, location, cost, the number, value and duration of awards and other benefits available, conditions of eligibility and closing dates and addresses for applications.[JCK]
Study abroad: Handbook for advisors and administrators. (1979). Guidelines
Series: 10. Washington, DC: National Association for Foreign Student Affairs, Field Service Program. [G-007] This handbook is a reference work to which advisers and others can turn for information, points of view, practices, alternatives, suggestions, and cautions. The guideline is in outline-form making the finding of topics of interest easy. In a number of cases the same information is given in two or more contexts to which it relates. The publication is intended to be of help to new people preparing for or entering the field of advising U.S. students on opportunities abroad, and to administrators and others involved with campus services and programs. It is also helpful to administrators in understanding the needs and operations of advisory services and programs for which they are responsible. The guidelines identify good and poor practices, but it is basically descriptive rather than prescriptive. [JCK]
Study abroad programs: An evaluation guide. (1980, May). Washington, DC:
National Association for Foreign Student Affairs. [E-004] The purpose of this guide is to help identify strengths and weaknesses of individual study abroad programs. It is designed to:
1. Identify programs that accomplish certain objectives most satisfactorily so that students' interests and goals can be more effectively matched with specific programs. 2. Identify improvements that should be made in a given program to make it more effective and viable. 3. Provide information for colleges and universities to review when determining whether or not to grant credit for academic work completed in a given program.
The guide is based upon a systematic analysis of the major components of study abroad programs by use of carefully phrased questions about each component. The components are classified under four headings as follows: (a) Basic information; printed materials, objectives, admissions requirements, (b) Academic aspects; curriculum, faculty, academic resources, (c) Interaction with the host culture; orientation, cross- cultural involvement, (d) Administrative aspects; sponsoring institution or organization, program administration, affiliation with a host country institution, housing and meals, supportive services, costs, travel arrangements. The evaluation of a program involves obtaining answers for each question from four sources of information: printed program materials, program administrators, current and former students, and an on-site program review. These answers are synthesized into a composite answer for each question. The composites are then compared with the sample positive and negative responses in the "Criteria for Evaluating Study Abroad Programs" to identify the strengths and weaknesses of each component. The strengths and weaknesses are then summarized, and recommendations are made for improvement of the program. [JCK]
Stutzman, R. (1981). A model evaluation process for undergraduate programs
abroad: Assessing cross-cultural education. Goshen, IN: Goshen College. [E-023] A proposal to develop and demonstrate a model process which will serve as an analytical tool to assess the impact of cross-cultural/experiential education programs both on student participants and on host-country nationals.[JCK]
Stutzman, R. (1985). Guide to on-site evaluation of undergraduate study-
abroad programs. Goshen, IN: Goshen College. [E-024] A project to develop, demonstrate, and disseminate a model procedure of broad application for the evaluation of humanities-based, undergraduate-level, study-abroad programs sponsored by U.S. colleges and universities. Five undergraduate programs representing a range of program types were studied in 1983 in Costa Rica and Belize by teams composed of educators from the countries concerned. Working in pairs or trios, six persons conducted onsite evaluations and wrote evaluation reports on several programs. The procedures employed reflect the practical experience and knowledge gained by the NEH-project team members. This guide introduces two innovative approaches, the pluralist evaluation, and the responsive evaluation, to the assessment of this wide range of experience-based undergraduate educational programs. It was designed especially for use by administrators and evaluators of programs that send North American students to study abroad.[JCK]
Sussman, N.M. (1984). Culture, nonverbal behavior, and intercultural
encounters. ISECSI Bulletin of International Interchanges, 21, 10-15. [C-027] An outline of some of the current controversies in nonverbal research, this paper provides the reader with a critical perspective on that research. The author ventures to say that more than 80% of all nonverbal research is guilty of ignoring the verbal-nonverbal linkage or of only exploring one nonverbal channel. With much of the social meaning of an interaction carried on the nonverbal channel, she emphasizes, accurate interpretation of these nonverbal behaviors becomes essential for successful social relationships. The paper suggests teaching those soon to embark on a cross-cultural encounter about attributions and interpretations of social behavior, with nonverbal behavior as part of that process, and how to make interpretations of those behaviors similar to those made by the natives of the new culture.[JCK]
Taba, H. (1953). Cultural attitudes and international understanding: An
evaluation of an international study tour. Occasional Paper, 5. New York: Institute of International Education. [O-068] This pilot study concentrated on analyzing: (1) the reasoning governing an understanding of international issues; (2) the acquisition of attitudes toward foreign cultures, such as the factors affecting it and their possible scope, (3) the role of ethnocentric assumptions, prejudices and stereotypes in forming them, and (4) the effect of particular exchange experiences on them. The International Relations Clubs Tour provided a good opportunity for realizing these purposes, because its objectives had a similar emphasis, namely: understanding international problems and American foreign relations; deepening an objective understanding of United States culture, its values and mores; accepting and understanding cultural differences with reasonable objectivity; reducing ethnocentric assumptions to enhance individual capacity to mature, to adopt new values, and to gain a larger and clearer perspective. The specific methods for gathering evidence were adapted both to the main objectives of the study and to the conditions of the tour. It is evident that several types of orientation exist among individuals of which the three described in this chapter may be the most frequent. While individuals vary in specific ways, each type has certain characteristics which produce common patterns in responding to new experiences. Most numerous in this tour group was Type I, those mature enough to distinguish the three culture patterns. While it was impossible to study the responses of all the individuals in this type sufficiently to discover the operating mental and emotional mechanisms, the evidence points to the fact that this type had the ability and inclination to internalize new learning into an intellectual and attitudinal framework and tended to use specific learning to modify their general concepts and feelings. With an independent criterion for assessing viewpoints toward the United States and France, this group was in a position to change these viewpoints consciously and systematically. New experiences in France not only changed their views of France, but also modified their view of the ideal society and the United States. While the changes were not too dramatic, they were productive of coherent shifts toward a unified orientation regarding all three cultures. It is quite evident from this analysis that the methods of forming concepts of a foreign culture are related to the structure of concepts of, and attitudes toward, the home culture, as well as to the ideas and feelings that the individuals hold regarding what is characteristic of an ideal culture. Moreover, the particular sequence of acquiring an orientation toward a foreign culture, depends on the constellation of the factors with which an individual enters into his experience with a foreign culture. Those who start with an intellectual control over their concepts and a rational method of viewing cultures and cultural experiences can proceed in a fairly logical way about correcting both their attitudes and their ideas. Others, who are more strongly feeling oriented seem to need to go through changes which appear to be no learning at all, unless they are considered as steps in a total sequence and as partial shifts in the total constellation of related factors. It is interesting to note also that while the tour developed a greater agreement among the tour members in the picture of France, it helped to individualize concepts of the United States. It is likely that this occurred because the tour group had fairly common experiences in France but had to rely on their individual capacities and motivations to revise their ideas about the United States. In addition, their initial concepts of France were relatively unformed, while each person had a more or less well developed idea of the United States from the beginning. In other words, the group started with a relative vacuum in regard to France whereas in respect to the United States they started with individually and differently formed concepts. Therefore, their progress in understanding each culture was also at variance.[JCK]
Taylor, M.L. (1979). Curriculum: U.S. capacities, developing countries' needs.
International education: The global context, the U.S. role. Report from the 1979 Conference on International Education. New York: Institute of International Education. [O-057] This investigation was undertaken as an effort to discover how effectively U.S. post-secondary curricula in key development fields are meeting the needs of students who will return to careers in countries much less developed industrially than the United States and which have very different agricultural and healthcare needs. In 1976-77, 131,300 students from 66 less-developed countries studied were enrolled in U.S. colleges and universities. Research focused on U.S. curricula in agriculture, business administration, economics, engineering, engineering-related technologies, science, and the healthcare professions. Department chairmen of U.S. universities with large numbers of foreign students were surveyed, as were diplomatic representatives of the 66 countries, U.S. cultural and public affairs officers in the countries, and the developing-country alumni, graduated since 1950, of four major U.S. universities. The findings of these surveys were analyzed by leaders in each of the key fields. They conducted panel discussions at the 1979 Conference on International Education, attended by educators, U.S. and foreign government personnel, and development experts in various fields. In general, the panels felt that U.S. curricula are based on a core of essential knowledge that cannot, without serious loss, be modified significantly for a group of students with special needs. However, they recommended a variety of approaches to helping the LDC student adapt what he learns in the United States to home country conditions and needs. These included special centers for LDC students, summer seminars, linkages between U.S. and LDC institutions allowing U.S. faculty to teach in the countries, and arrangements for LDC students to do thesis and dissertation research at home.[JCK]
Taylor, M.L., & Young, N. (Eds.). (1976). Study in Europe. New York: Institute
of International Education. [G-015]
Ternes, H. (1976). Another program abroad? ADFL Bulletin, 8(2), 52. [P-011]
In 1975 the German Department of Lawrence University began a 10-week program in Germany. It started with 4 weeks of language study at the Goethe Institute in Radolfzell/Bodensee and had a one-week interterm for independent student travel. During the final 5 weeks students chose one course in Munich taught in German; political science, art history, and German theater were offered.[HDW]
Thomas, K.A. (1984). Key areas of research with implications for cross-cultural
counseling. ISECSI Bulletin of International Interchanges, 21, 28-36. [R-023] The purpose of this paper is to identify key questions in the field of foreign student advising and counseling, and to review a few key empirical studies. Overcoming cultural differences between counselor and client becomes a key question for foreign student advisers who must work with a number of different students from a large number of countries. The paper concludes that there is a substantial need to address the significant research questions with some empirical studies. The nature of the literature remains largely conceptual and theoretical. Second, current studies have focused primarily on the special issues and problems of minority group populations in the United States, presenting however a major challenge to the counselors and advisers from whom the international students seek assistance.[JCK]
Thomas, R.M., & Hawkins, J.N. (1984). An author's primer in comparative
international education. Bibliography pages. [R-024] A list of journals for publishing study abroad research. Some related literature.[HDW]
Tucker, M.F. (1973, June). Improving the evaluation of Peace Corps training
activities: Volume II (Report of Supplemental Activities conducted under ACTION Contract PC-72-42043). Denver, CO: Center for Research and Education. [E-009] The purpose of this project was to review the evaluation system presently being used to assess the effectiveness of Peace Corps training activities in Brazil and to modify rating instruments and scales in order to obtain more accurate measurements. Two methods emerged. The first, the Retranslation of Expectations method was selected for the purpose of constructing properly worded statements for the scales. The second was the Mixed Standard Scale.The two evaluation scaling systems represent significant improvements over conventional methods. Their systematic use in evaluating Peace Corps training would result in much more accurate and reliable information than the methods now being employed. The report concludes by recommending that these methods be put to use in evaluating Peace Corps training programs. The rater, scale, and activity reliabilities should be computed and recorded, so that decisions can be made with known degrees of confidence and the scales themselves can be modified for greater usefulness, accuracy, and reliability.[JCK]
Tysse, A. (1974). International education: The American experience: A
bibliography. Scarecrow Press. [R-025]
Uehara, A. (1986). Comparison of re-entry adjustment between Japanese and
American students. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota. [I-049] This study attempted to compare re-entry adjustment between Japanese and American students who had studied in each other's country for longer than one academic year, and focuses on three research questions: (1) whether or not Japanese and American students experience re-entry culture shock after having lived in each other's country and returned home, (2) the components of re-entry adjustment, and (3) common features of readjustment of the two groups as well as unique characteristics on re-entry of each group. The author defines culture shock as temporal psychosocial difficulties sometimes associated with physical problems that a returnee experiences in the initial stage of the adjustment process at home after having lived abroad for some time. The method employed in this study is that of cross-cultural survey research. An 18-page questionnaire was administered to returnees of the two groups from September to December 1984. The major findings from the respondents' data were: (1) the data support previous research which assert the existence of re-entry culture shock in the process of readjustment at home; (2) both the Japanese and the American returnees experienced a similar degree of re-entry culture shock after returning from each other's country; (3) the time needed for reintegration of the returned students into the home cultures varied from individual to individual; (4) female returnees experienced greater re-entry culture shock than the male returnees did; (5) for the Japanese returnees, except for missing America, problematic relationships with family and professors or employers lasted longer than any other problems after returning from the U.S.; for the American returnees, except for missing Japan, the feeling of loss lasted longer than any other problems after returning home from Japan; (6) several critical factors were found that influence the re-entry adjustment of both groups, (7) length of foreign sojourn is a statistically important factor for the Japanese students' re-entry, while age is important for American students' readjustment; (8) as an extreme re-entry cultural problem, a couple of returned students in both groups were caught in a dilemma by internalizing incompatible cultural values; (9) most returnees of the two groups became aware of some positive and negative aspects of home and the sojourned cultures. This study provides empirical data to support the notion that the initial stage of re-entry adjustment process incorporates potential psychosocial and physiological difficulties. Both groups encountered a similar degree of difficulty. This study also found several critical factors that influence re-entry adjustment of the two groups of returnees, while maintaining and supporting the previous studies which demonstrate that the cross- cultural experience contains positive elements (N. Adler, 1976; P. Adler, 1975, 1972).[JCK]
Uehara, A. (1986). The nature of American student re-entry adjustment and
perceptions of the sojourn experience. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 10,415-438. [C-024] This study investigated re-entry adjustment experiences of American students after an extended sojourn abroad. Fifty-eight overseas sojourners were compared to 74 domestic travelers and findings indicated that the returnees from abroad experienced much greater re-entry adjustment problems. The results support previous studies which document the existence of the re-entry adjustment phenomenon. Results revealed that changes in the individual's value structure are an important factor that is associated with reentry adjustment. This study underscores previous research which states that the re-entry transitional period includes positive and growthful aspects for the returnees. (AUT)
University of California. (1970). Self-study of international educational
exchange. Berkeley, CA: Author. [E-026] This study was undertaken with the assumption that there are different kinds and degrees of knowledge, and that knowledge gained from the thoughtful opinion of trained and experienced minds, based upon their observations and supported by the small amount of available hard facts, will give the collective wisdom of the faculty and administrators engaged in activities relating to international exchange. This collective wisdom was developed by committees on each of the nine UC campuses through the fall, winter, and spring, 1969-70. The nine campus studies, some detailed, some fragmentary, some representing regular attention of faculty members and administrators, others showing evidence of the overriding daily domestic demands of the University in a time of continuing crisis, were summarized by the coordinator, and this summary was in turn reviewed by the chairmen of the campus committees at a series of meetings. This process resulted in the present document which suggests some answers to fundamental questions about the University of California's role in international educational exchange.[JCK]
Useem, J., & Useem, R.H. (1955). The Western-educated man in India: Study
of social roles. New York: Dryden Press. [C-026]
Useem, R.H., & Coelho, G.V. (1967). The student third culture. Occasional
Papers on International Educational Exchange, 10. New York: CIEE. [O-099]
Useem, R.H., & Putman, I., Jr. (1981). The international student exchange
program (Evaluation Report No. 2). Washington, DC: Georgetown University, International Student Exchange Program. [E-027] The authors were asked to prepare an evaluation report on the International Student Exchange Program (ISEP) based at Georgetown University. The first report submitted to the agency [ICA] was based on information gathered at ISEP headquarters where the authors engaged in extensive discussions with ISEP and Georgetown University staff on the history, the design, administration, and operation of the program as it stood, and on plans for its future. In their concluding statement, the authors point out that their sampling of the opinions and experiences of university officials of both U.S. and foreign participating institutions and of students gives overwhelmingly positive testimony to the appeal of the ISEP concept, the feasibility of the exchange plan, the success of the students' experience, and the dedication, resourcefulness, and effectiveness of the ISEP.[JCK]
Vaughn, H.A. (1981, July). International educational exchange: Study
abroad-An agenda for research and development. Draft prepared by the Council on International Educational Exchange, Committee on Academics Abroad. [R-026] This paper is addressed to the dearth of and need for data, evaluative studies and fundamental research related to one aspect of educational exchange, the study abroad programs sponsored by U.S. institutions of higher education. Because of the considerable differences in reporting by various publications as refers to the number of Americans participating in a college-sponsored program abroad, the author sees the difficulty of obtaining reliable data to serve as a basis for making intelligent judgments. No organization, he claims, has made a successful concerted effort to collect such data. The author concludes that educational exchange, however, is important to the U.S. and its academic institutions, and that much more needs to be known about the field, how it works, and how well it works, suggesting at the same time that members of CIEE call upon each other and their academic colleagues, state and national educational authorities, the professional associations, and funding agencies to respond to that need.[JCK]
Vente, R.E. (1980, November). The technological mind and other issues of
current exchange research. Paper presented at the U.S.-German Conference on Research on Exchanges, Bonn, West Germany. [R-027] This paper gives some indications regarding what might be feasible research projects. In doing so, it emphasizes those projects which require a close cooperation between U.S. and German researchers, and whenever possible, the inclusion of researchers of other countries concerned.[JCK]
Wallace, J.A. (1962). Characteristics of programs for study abroad. Journal of
General Education, 13(4), 251-261. [O-070] The rapid rise of study abroad programs since World War II is traced. Seven motives for study abroad are given and seven outcomes that can be expected are stated. Nine characteristics of study abroad programs which should be present for quality general education programs are identified.[HDW]
Wallace, J.A. (1965). Selection of participants. Occasional Papers on
International Educational Exchange, 3. New York: CIEE. [O-092]
Weaver, H. D. (1981, November). Research on study abroad. Unpublished
summary of an address presented at the Council on International Educational Exchange annual meeting, Washington, DC. [R-028] A summary of research about study abroad.[JCK]
Weaver, P. (1962). Study abroad and general education. Journal of General
Education, 13(4), 243-250. [O-074] The criticisms of American study programs in Europe voiced at the 1949 Carnegie Conference in Paris are reported: too many countries are visited in too short a time, students have too little preparation, there is too little contact with Europeans, and summer programs are at the wrong time to experience European university and cultural life. Ten characteristics of good programs are given.[HDW]
Weidner, E.W. (1962) The world role of universities. New York: McGraw-Hill.
[O-053] The effort of this research focused on collecting and presenting data that would be useful to organizations and individuals in arriving at their own evaluations about education abroad programs. In the present volume, the director of the Institute of Research on Overseas Programs has attempted to set forth his own criteria, including his definitions of success and appropriateness of projects, together with the outlines of an approach to higher education, foreign policy, and university international exchange. The fundamental objective of the present research project was to examine the impacts university programs have on institutions and individuals abroad and also the impacts they have on institutions and individuals at home. Impacts were to be examined as to their extent, the factors or variables related to them, and the criteria or sets of criteria that could be and are used to assess them.[JCK]
Wenzong, H. (1986). Why bother about culture in English language teaching?
AFS Occasional Papers in Intercultural Learning, 11, 217. [C-003] To find out the views of both teachers and students on questions related to awareness of cultural traits, questionnaires were sent to 36 native English speakers who were teachers at Chinese institutions of higher education. Questionnaires were also sent to two groups of students at the author's own institution. Fifty of these students were being trained as United Nations interpreters and translators and 14 were specializing in cultural exchange. The reason for choosing these groups was that they could be expected to be more culturally aware since they had studied English at college for five or six years and would be working overseas among people of different cultures. Based on the author's investigation, it is suggested that, in designing English language courses, one should see to it that the cultural component should include not only "high civilization" but also customs, habits, and the way of life of English-speaking peoples. One should also see to it, the author contends, that the cultural component is not overemphasized in beginning courses and is increased gradually as students progress in their language learning.[JCK]
Werth, M. (1980, November). Migration and reintegration. Paper presented at
the U.S.-German Conference on Research on Exchanges, Bonn, West Germany. [M-014] This paper explains the isoplan-institute's "reintegration-programs" for qualified returnees to different countries (mainly Turkey) and, in doing so, publishes a number of research studies, evaluations, and statistical inventories. The target group of reintegration programs in the FRG are (1) students and postgraduate academic people as well as (2) skilled workers and (3) self-help initiatives. In addition to the group of students, approximately 370,000 highly skilled workers and employees from Third World Countries are working in the FRG (with significant numbers tending to stay in Germany), most of them coming from the Mediterranean labor-exporting countries. Special emphasis is being given to reintegration programs for "self-help initiatives," primarily for turkish "guest workers companies." As an appendix to the present paper is a formulation by Pieter von Dijk, responsible for Dutch programs, of some critical hypotheses which can serve as a basis of future discussion and research.[JCK]
Wilson, N.H. (1967). High school exchange-Does form follow function?
Occasional Papers on International Educational Exchange, 9. New York: CIEE. [O-098]
Winter, G. (1980, November) On changing social systems and interpersonal
relations by changing oneself. Paper presented at the U.S.-German Conference on Research on Exchanges, Bonn, West Germany. [T-012] This paper discusses an interactional perspective on international educational exchange; describes the interaction between the cognitive changes that occur within the sojourner (changes in perceptions, internalized role expectations, and value systems) and the influence of the physical, social, and cultural environment in which the sojourner interacts in the host country. Also describes the process (stages) which the sojourner experiences in realizing the changes described above. Finally, the author lists a number of practical applications of these theoretical concepts including the necessity for exchange programs to allow opportunities for social and personal exploration as well as cognitive growth, length of time should be sufficient to allow for maximum intellectual and social opportunities, exchange programs should have some mechanism for providing assistance to students as they experience these personal changes.(JM)
Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs. (1951). Evaluation
of longtime effects: International educational exchange (Belgium). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University. [I-050]
Wu, J-j. (1982, December). Comparison of experiences of American students
in Taiwan with Taiwan students in the United States. Taipei, Taiwan: Foundation for Scholarly Exchange. [M-004] This research has its origin from three sources. The first part consists of information collected in collaboration with Geoffrey White of the East-West Center in Honolulu, Hawaii. Subjects were asked the causes and coping strategies of five everyday problems including difficulty sleeping, feeling anxious, weak, feeling hollow, and empty, and having a headache. These five problems are an extension of previous work done at the East-West Center. In that research, 30 problems were extracted from three different problem checklists. These checklists included the Zung Depression Scale, a problem and behavior checklist used by the Institute of Behavioral Sciences in Honolulu, and a questionnaire on help- seeking originally written and used in Hong Kong. The researchers in Honolulu then selected a representative set of 30 problems which spanned the range of items and eliminated much of the redundancy. These five problems are an extraction of those 30 problems. Another part of the research done in collaboration with the East-West Center involves the frequency of occurrence for 13 of the problems extracted from the 30 problem checklist. The problems included: difficulty making decisions, difficulty sleeping, uncertain about future, feel hollow and empty, difficulty meeting family's expectations, have headaches, feel anxious and tense, difficulty concentrating, unable to meet goals, feel weak and fatigued for no apparent reason, have lost trust in people, feel lonely, and can't control emotions. The frequency scale was a point Likert Scale ranging from never to daily in the past week. A second part of the research was an adaptation of a social Network survey developed by Nick Heggenbothom of the University of Waikato in New Zealand. This section concerns itself with the quantity and quality of contact the students have with other people. The third section was designed by the researchers in Taipei. This section concerns lifestyle of the American and Taiwan students overseas. This section concerns itself about work, school, information, problems, housing, and plans after departure from Taiwan. All three parts, were incorporated into one survey and distributed in Taiwan and America. Of the 150 surveys distributed to American students, 56 were completed and returned. Surveys were distributed at 12 different American colleges and universities in the U.S. Of the 560 surveys distributed, 241 were completed and returned. As the lifestyle, purpose of going abroad, and background of American students in Taiwan and Taiwan students in America differ so much, one would expect that the problems encountered by them would vary. Indeed, problems did vary from the very onset of their overseas stays. Among the findings: (1) every problem was reportedly occurring more often for Americans than for Chinese; (2) when the problems were ranked according to frequency, the rankings were very similar for Americans and Chinese; (3) being uncertain about the future was the most frequent problem for Americans while it was ranked second to last for Chinese; (4) the two most prevalent problems for the Chinese were communication and transportation; (5) the three most common problems for Americans were pollution, politics, and communication.[JCK]
Young, R.L. (1980). Social images and interpersonal interaction among Hong
Kong and American students. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Hawaii. [C-021] Stereotypes are trait terms that generalize and simplify characteristics of groups of people in the form of verbal labels, and are used to explain behaviors of members of those groups in terms of those labels. These stereotypes, or social images, are used to judge how one should interact with others. This study has analyzed which behaviors are associated with traits which make up the stereotypes of two national groups, Hong Kong and American students. It has been found that Americans and Hong Kong Chinese have similar behavioral conceptualizations of traits. The similarity hypothesis states that attraction to a person increases with the degree in which attributes are described as similar to one another. The similarity hypothesis was found to apply to predict that Chinese students will feel more comfortable with the national group (Hong Kong or American) that is more similar to their self image. The American students felt more comfortable and associate more with the national group that is more similar to self image. The subjects were Hong Kong and American students at the Chinese University of Hong Kong.[AUT]
Young, R.L. (1985). Impact of study abroad on personal and intellectual
development in the college years. Unpublished manuscript. [O-054] A review of postwar literature on impact of study abroad, this paper discusses the goals of study abroad as part of the educational process, the changes students go through during their sojourn, and the implications of the research to the study abroad office.[JCK]
Young, R.L. (1985). Transcending one's cultural context: The ethnic American
student abroad. Unpublished manuscript. [I-061] This paper explores the ethnic identity development of the college-aged ethnic American. The context is the study abroad experience where the ethnic American goes to the country or cultural environment of their ancestors. The college years were chosen as the context of this paper since they are not only a time of exploration in terms of developing lifelong personal values, but of establishing one's attitudes toward their own ethnicity. This paper also examines one's ancestral origin through six sections. The first discusses the issue of how ethnicity is defined and how it applies to ethnic Americans. The second section discusses the issue of formation of ethnic identity for the ethnic American. It examines how the ethnic American is pulled between the culture of their ancestors and that of a dominant "American" culture. The third and fourth sections use the concepts of allegiance and awareness toward their ethnicity and the influence of their assimilation into American society in theorizing how the ethnic American student experiences their overseas sojourn. These sections address how ethnic American students are viewed as an ethnic being as well as an American, rather than a minority in the American sense, while coping with different pressures in the assimilation process. A fifth section discusses implications of the research, with respect to ethnicity at three levels: personal, school, and societal.[JCK]
4 5 Index Cross-Cultural Issues
Amir, Y (1969), p. 11
Batchelder, D., & Warner, E.G. (Eds.). (1977), p. 15
Bochner, S. (1977, p. 18
Bresee, D.E. (1985), p. 19 Brislin, R.W. (1980), November), p. 20 Brislin, R.W. (1981), p. 20 Brislin, R.W., & Pederson, P. (1988), p. 25 Carlson,J.S.,& Widaman D.F. (1988), p. 25 Condon, J.C., & Yousef, F.S. (1975), p. 30 Gorden, A. (No date), p. 39 Herman, S.N., & Schild, D. (1960, p. 44 Hoopes, D., & Ventura, P. (Eds.),(1979), p.45 Intercultural Communicating. (1976), p. 49 Juffer, K.A. (1984), p. 50 Kohls, R. (1979), p.57 Lampo, J.M. (1985), p. 61 Lovejoy, E.P. (1980), p.65 Oberg, K. (1960), p. 74 Sikkema, M., & Niyekawa, A. (1977), p. 86 Stewart, E.C. (1972), p. 91 Sussman, N.M. (1984), p. 93 Useem, J.,& Useem, R.H., (1955), p. 99 Wenzong, H. (1986), p. 101 Young, R.L. (1980), p.104 Evaluations
Abrams, I. (1979), p. 5 Abrams, I., & Abrams-Reis, C. (1979, September), p. 6 Abrams, I., & Heller, F.H. (1978), p. 7 Barrutia, R., Larkin, B.D., Prator, C.H., & Weaver, H.D. (1980), p. 14 Billigmeier, R.H., & Forman, D. (1975), p. 17 Carlson, J.S. (1986, March), p. 24 Carlson, J.S., & Jensen, M.C. (1983), p. 25 Fersh, S. & Fitchen, E. (Eds.), (1981), p.33 Fugate, J.K. (1983), p.36 Gough, H. & McCormack, W. (1967), p. 39 Hoskins, L. (1970), p. 47 Klineberg, O. (1976), p. 55 Lamet, M.S., Lamet, S.A., & Whitcomb, D.E. (1979), p. 59 Oldt, E.A. (1968), p. 74 Pace, R.C. (1959), p. 74 Pfnister, A.O. (1969), p. 78 Pfnister, A.O. (1973), p. 79 Smith, C.T. (1971), p. 87 Sudy abroad programs: An evaluation guide. (1980, May), p. 92 Stutzman, R. (1981), p. 93 Stutzman, R. (1985), p. 93 Tucker, M.F. (1973, June), p. 97 University of California. (1970), p. 99 Useem, R.H., & Putman, I., Jr. (1981), p. 99 Guides
Basic facts on study abroad. (1987), p. 14 Baumann, C. (1975), p. 16 Boyan, D.R. (1981), p. 18 Cohen, M.A. (1987), p. 28 Garraty, J.A., Klemperer, L. von, & Taylor, C.J.H. (1981), p. 37 Howard, E. (Ed.). (1987), p. 47 Howard, E. (Ed.). (1988), p. 47 Klemperer, L. von. (1976), p. 54 Lowenstein, J., & Taylor, M.L. (Eds.). (1976), p. 65 McIntyre, P.A. (Ed.). (1980), p. 70 Pierce, B.H. (1979), p.79 Students abroad: Guide for selective foreign education, (1979), p. 92 Study abroad. (1981), p. 92 Study abroad: Handbook for advisors and administrators. (1979), p. 92 Taylor, M.L., & Young, N. (Eds.). (1976), p. 96 Impact Studies
Barber, E.G. (1983), p. 11 Barrows, T.S., Klein, S.F., & Clark, J.L.D. (1980), p.12 Baty, R., & Dold, E. (1977), p. 16 Bower, T.J. (1973), p. 18 Burn, B.B. (1981), p.22 Burnham, W.E., Trendler, C.A., & Harris, D. (1966), p. 24 Carlson, J.S. (1983), p. 24 Carsello, C., & Greaser, J. (1976), p. 26 Church, A.T. (1982), p. 27 Coelho, G.V. (1962), p. 28 Craig, R.B. (1983, May), p. 31 Davies, M.W. (1974), p. 31 Flack, M.J. (1976), p. 35 Galtung, I.E. (1965), p. 37 Golden, J.S. (1973, spring), p. 38 Hensley, T.R., & Sell, D.K. (1979), p. 43 Hofman, J.E., & Zak, I. (1969), p. 45 James, N.E. (1976), p. 49 Kafka, E.P. (1968), p. 51 Kauffmann, N.L. (1983), p. 51 Kauffmann, N.L. (1983), p. 52 Kauffmann, N.L. (1985, May), p. 53 Kelman, H.C. (1962), p. 53 Koester, J. (1985), p. 57 Lamet, S.A., & Lamet, M.S. (1981), p. 59 Lamet, S.A., & Lamet, M.S. (1982, May), p. 60 Lamet, S.A., & Lamet, M.S. (1982, November), p. 60 Lank, H.P. (1963), p.61 Leonard, E. (1959), p. 62 Leonard, E.W. (1964), p. 63 Marlon, P.B. (1974), p. 66 Markovits, A.S., & Keeler, J.T. (1978), p. 66 Martin, J.N. (1986), p. 67 McEvoy, T.T. (1968), p. 69 McGuigan, F.J. (1958), p. 70 McKeown, B., & Craig, R. B. (1978, February), p. 70 Melchiori, A., & Slind, M.G. (1987), p. 70 Merritt, R.L. (1972), p. 71 Morgan, E.E., Jr. (1972), p. 71 Morgan, E.E., Jr. (1975), p. 72 Nash, D. (1976), p. 73 Pelowski, J.F. (1979), p. 76 Pfnister, A.O. (1971), p. 78 Pfnister, A.O. (1972), p. 78 Price, B.L., & Hensley, T.R. (1978, April), p. 80 Pyle, K.R. (1981), p. 80 Salter, C.A., & Teger, A.I. (1975), p. 82 Sampson, D.L., & Smith, H.P. (1957), p. 82 Sell, D.K. (1980), p. 83 Sell, D.K. (1981, May), p. 84 Sell, D.K. (1983, May), p. 84 Sell, D.K. (1983), p. 94 Sell, D.K., & Craig, R.B. (1982, April), p. 85 Smith, H.P. (1955), p. 87 Smith, H.P. (1957), p. 88 Stauffer, M.L. (1973), p. 90 Uehara, A. (1986), p. 97 Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs. (1951), p. 103 Young, R.L. (1985), p. 105 Miscellaneous
American Council on Education. (1984), p. 11 Barber, E.G., & Ilchman, W. (1979, September), p. 12 Committe on Educational Interchange Policy. (1956), p. 30 Flack, M.J. (1980, November), p. 35 Halsted, H.M. (1980, November), p. 35 Harari, M. (1980, November), p. 42 Hayden, R.L. (1980, November), p. 43 Hull, W.F., IV, & Lemke, W.H., Jr. (1975), p. 48 Hull, W.F., IV, Lemke, W.H., Jr., & Houang, R.T. (1977), p. 48 McGhee, M.E. (1983), p. 69 Ruffino, R. (1983), p. 81 Stephens, C.J. (1986), p. 90 Werth, M. (1980, November), p. 102 Wu, J-j. (1982, December), p. 103 General Overviews
Abrams, I. (1965), p. 5 Abrams, I., & Arnold, D. B. (1967), p. 6 Abrams, I., & Hatch, W.R. (1960), p. 7 Abrams-Reis, C. (1980), p. 8 Adler, P.S. (1974), p. 8 Allaway, W.H. (1957), p. 9 Allaway, W.H. (1986), p. 9 Allaway, W.H. (1987), p. 10 Allaway, W.H., & Koff, S.P. (1965), p. 10 Allaway, W.H., & Shorrock, H.C. (Eds.). (1985), p. 10 Arpan, J.S., Geer, M., McCracken, P., & Wind, J. (1988), p. 11 Arum. S. (1987), p. 11 Barrutia, R. (1971), p. 13 Barrutia, R. (1979), p. 14 Baskin, S. (Ed). (1965), p. 14 Battsek, M. (1962), p. 15 Bicknese, G. (1974), p. 17 Board of Foreign Scholarships. (1971), p. 17 Bowman, J.E., (1987), p. 18 Burn, B.B. (1980), p. 20 Burn, B.B. (1980), p. 22 Burn, B.B., & Briggs, A. (1985), p. 23 Carlson, J.S., & Yachimowicz. (1986), p. 26 Castro, F.P., & de Puga, E.S. (1967), p. 26 Churchill, R. (1958), p. 27 Cleveland, H., Mangone, G., & Adams, J.C. (1960), p. 27 Coleman, J.S. (1984), p. 29 Colleges set number of study-abroad programs. (1979, May 14), p. 29 Commanday, S. (1976), p. 29 Coughlin, M.T. (1975), p. 31 Eide, I. (Ed.). (1970), p. 32 Elder, J.W. (1987), p. 32 Fersh, S. (1982), p. 33 Flack, M.J. (No date), p. 34 Fraser, S.E. (1984), p. 35 Freeman, S.A. (1965), p 36 Fugate, J.K. (1987), p. 36 Fugate, J., Haenicke, D., & Northcott, K.J. (1976), p. 36 Gardner, E.G. (1967), p. 37 Gliozzo, C. (1969, July-August), p. 37 Gliozzo, C. (1978), p. 38 Gliozzo, C. (1980), p. 38 Gliozzo, C. (1981), p. 38 Gliozzo, C. (1982), P. 40 Gullahorn, J.T. & Gullahorn, J.E. (1958), p. 40 Haenicke, D.H. (1976), p. 41 Hartle, R.W. (1968), p. 42 Hayden, R.L. (1980), p. 42 Herman, S.N. (1970), p. 43 Hill, D.J. (Ed.). (1986), p. 45 Holland, K. (Special Ed.). (1976), p. 45 Hull, W.F., IV, (1981), p. 47 Jansen, M.B. (1974), p. 50 Johnson, B.L. (Ed.). (1982), p. 50 King, M.C., & Fersch, S.H. (1982), p. 54 Klassen, F.H. (1967), p. 54 Klineberg, O., & Hull, W.F., IV. (1979), p. 55 Knepler, H. (1980, February-March), p. 56 Krawutschke, E.L. (1980), p. 57 Lambert, R.D. (Special Ed.). (1980), p. 58 Lauwerys, J.A. Nagai, M., & Taylor, H. (1967), p. 62 Ley, H. de. (1975), p. 64 Lundstedt, S., & McEvoy, T.L. (1967), p. 66 Masters, R.D. (1971), p. 68 McCormack, W. (1969), p. 68 Murray, J.R. (1965), p. 73 Paige, R.M. (1984), p. 75 Pell, C. (1987, November), p. 76 Pfnister, A.O. (1970), p. 78 Rice, G.W. (1968), p. 80 Sanders, I.T., & Ward, J.C. (1970), p. 82 Schools make news: Study-service abroad. (1969, October 18), p. 83 Scully, M.G. (1978, October 10), p. 83 Shank, D.J. (Chair). (1963), p. 86 Snell, D.K. (1987), p. 88 Spier, P. (1968), p. 90 Taba, H. (1953), p. 94 Taylor, M.L. (1979), p. 95 Useem, R.H., & Coelho, G.V. (1967), p. 99 Wallace, J.A. (1962), p. 100 Wallace, J.A. (1965), p. 101 Weaver, P. (1962), p. 101 Wilson, N.H. (1967), p. 102 Young, R.L. (1985), p. 104 Program Descriptions
Abrams, I., & Duewell, K. (1982, March), p. 7 Allaway, W.H. (1951), p. 8 Burn, B.B. (1980, November), p. 20 Hess, G. (1976), p. 44 Hildebrand, M. (1983), p. 44 Hoskins, L.M. (1962), p. 46 McCormack, W. (1976), p. 68 Stavig, R. (1966, February 19), p. 90 Ternes, H. (1976), p. 96 Research
Abrams, I. (1980, November), p. 5 Allaway, W.H. (1980, November), p. 9 Bowman, J.E. (1967), p. 18 Burn, B.B. (1980), p. 21 Cormack, M.L. (1962), p. 30 Deutsch, S.E. (1970), p. 32 Fisher, J.M., Craig, R.B. & Sell, D.K. (1982, October), p. 33 Hull, W.F., IV. (1980), p.47 Hull W.F., IV. (1983), p. 48 Kenney, N.J. (1956), p. 53 Klineberg, O. (1966), p. 54 Littmann, U. (1980, November), p. 64 Lulat, Y. G-M. (1984), p. 65 Neuhold, H. (1970, October), p. 74 Paige, R.M. (1978, February), p. 75 Pich, E. (No date), p. 79 Richardson, J. (1980, November), p. 81 Sell, D.K., & Brown, S.R. (1984), p. 84 Sell, D.K., & Craig, R.B. (1983), p. 86 Smith, M.B. (1956), p. 88 Spaulding, S., & Flack, M.J. (1976), p. 89 Spencer, C.S., Jr., & Stahl, V.R. (Compilers). (1983), p. 89 Spencer, R.E., & Awe, R. (1968), p. 89 Thomas, K.A. (1984), p. 96 Thomas, R.M., & Hawkins, J.N. (1984), p. 97 Tysse, A. (1974), p. 97 Vaughn, H.A. (1981, July), p. 100 Vente, R.E. (1980, November), p. 100 Weaver, H.D. (1981, November), p. 101 Theoretical Presentations
Adler, N. (1976), p. 8 Gullahorn, J.T., & Gullahorn, J.E. (1963), p. 40 Hayden, R.L. (1976), p. 42 Hopkins, R.S. (1982), p. 46 Lambert, R.D. (1982), p. 58 National Advisory Board on International Education Programs. (1983), p. 70