Research on U.S.
Students Study Abroad: An
Volume III, 2001-2003,
With Updates to the 1989
and Volume II Editions
An annotated bibliography edited
by David Comp, Ph.D.
Office of International Affairs
The University of Chicago
Final editing, online publication, and introduction by
The Center for Global Education
Gary Rhodes, Director
Adams, R. (2001, October). Second language assessment and study abroad. Paper presented at the Pacific Second Language Research Forum, University of Hawai'i at Manoa.
Different methods of language assessment and their impact on our understanding of second language learning and study abroad are summarized. Also, empirical evidence is presented in support of the use of multiple methods of assessment, including self-assessment, for accurate, reliable and valid profiles of language learners. [Author].
Allen, H.W. (2002). Does study abroad make a difference? An investigation of linguistic and motivational outcomes. (Doctoral dissertation, Emory University). Dissertation Abstracts International, 63, 1279A.
The purpose of this mixed-methodology study was to investigate linguistic and affective outcomes of summer study abroad (SA) participation by 25 college French students. This investigation sought to determine if significant changes occurred in two linguistic factors, oral and listening French skills, and two affective factors, integrative motivation and language anxiety, after SA. This study also investigated whether pre-SA affective differences existed for SA participants versus non-SA peers. Findings were interpreted in relation to Gardner's Socio-Educational Model (1985) which posits that success in foreign language learning depends not only on aptitude by also on learner perceptions of native speakers and learner willingness to identify with aspects of linguistic and non-linguistic behavior that characterize native speakers. Results demonstrated that significant improvements occurred in French linguistic skills and significant decreases took place in classroom and non-classroom language anxiety after SA. Integrative motivation levels of the SA group were unchanged after the experience, however, integrative motivation levels of students with more than two years of college French (n = 12) were significantly improved. Pre-SA affective differences did not exist between SA participants and non-SA peers. Analysis of interviews and program evaluations suggested that participants faced two sources of language anxiety while abroad: linguistic insecurities and cultural differences. Many students reported disappointments in terms of cultural misunderstandings (especially within host families) and lack of contact with native speakers. Implications of this study include (1)the need for greater pre-SA emphasis on non-academic factors by administrators, (2) the necessity for SA programs to include contact with native speakers as part of in-class as well as informal learning, and (3) the imperative for FL teachers to infuse the curriculum with cultural competence by integration of authentic materials, technological resources, and contact with native speakers. [Author].
Altbach, P.G., & Teichler, U. (2001, Spring). Internationalization and exchanges in a globalized university. Journal of Studies on International Education, 5 (1).
Internationalization in higher education is an inevitable result of the globalized and knowledge-based economy of the 21st century. Other trends affecting the universities, including diversification, expansion, privatization, and so on, also have implications for the international role of academic institutions. The intersection of the logic of globalization and other pressures facing universities make a reconsideration of international programs and strategies necessary. Exchanges, university linkages, patterns of mobility, and international and regional arrangements among universities are all changes. [Authors].
American Council on Education. (2002). Beyond September 11: A comprehensive national policy on international education. Washington, D.C.: American Council on Education. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.acenet.edu/bookstore/pdf/2002_beyond_911.pdf.
Thirty-three higher education, scholarly, and exchange associations have endorsed this new proposal for a national policy on international education. The report outlines U.S. need for international and foreign language expertise and citizen awareness, examines the shortages in those areas, and proposes strategies and government policies to meet these needs. [ACE].
Anders, R.L. (2001). Quick reads trekking in Thailand: A nursing study abroad opportunity. Nursing and Health Care Perspectives, 22 (3), 118-121.
Anderson, C.L. (2002). Study abroad: The role culture plays in relating between U.S. American women and host country men in Latin America. Unpublished Master’s thesis, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN.
Aoki, K.V. (2001) The development of intercultural sensitivity in adolescents growing up in an international community: Based on Milton Bennett’s Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity. Unpublished Master’s thesis, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN.
Art & Science Group. (2001, December). College-bound students’ strong interest in international education contrasts with actual college experiences. Student Poll, 4 (3), 1-2. Published by Art & Science Group in collaboration with the American Council on Education. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.umabroad.umn.edu/curriculum/resources/studentpoll.pdf.
Arthur, N. (2001, January). Using critical incidents to investigate cross-cultural transitions. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 25 (1), 41-53.
The process of cross-cultural transition is of interest to researchers who attempt to uncover factors that lead to sojourner adjustment and cross-cultural effectiveness. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the perceived stressors and coping strategies of Canadian post-secondary students during a 7-week cross-cultural Seminar program in Vietnam. Using a critical incidents methodology, the study tracked both the common and unique experiences of students. Specific critical incidents were collected from students at six time points regarding experiences that were stressful, selected coping strategies, use of social support, shifting views of self and perspectives about international development. Results from the study are discussed with suggestions for pre-departure training programs and the use of critical incidents as a tool for understanding cross-cultural transitions. [Author].
Bachner, D.J., Malone, L.J., & Snider, M.C. (2001). Learning interdependence: A case study of international/interncultural education of first-year college students. Columbia, SC: National Resource Center for The First-Year Experience & Students in Transition, University of South Carolina.
Administrator, faculty, and student voices come together to describe a unique experiment in intercultural education at Hartwick College in Oneonta, New York. Challenging the notion that study abroad programs are best suited for "mature" students, faculty and administrators designed an intercultural, interdisciplinary course for first-year students, spanning an entire academic year. The book includes information on program development and student outcomes, with an appendix featuring syllabi from six courses based on the model. Learning Interdependence is equal parts travel log, curriculum design guide, and personal diary. As we struggle with the meaning of education on a shrinking, increasingly connected planet, this book offers a bold new way of thinking about teaching and learning in the first college year. [Authors].
Barclift, P.L. (2001, October). Study abroad: Teaching Christology in an area of conflict. Teaching Theology and Religion, 4 (3), 166-173.
Theological study abroad programs in countries like Israel can actually benefit from the political tensions in those countries when the tensions are treated with due caution and when the course is designed to account for them. Focusing on Israel as its test case, this article offers suggestions for ensuring safety in countries of conflict. At the same time, it lays the groundwork for assuring a balanced approach to studying the present conflict in Israel within the framework of a course in christology while addressing the demands of Seattle University's Catholic Jesuit philosophy. [Author].
Beach, R., & Sherman, G. (2000, Winter). Rethinking Canada: Canadian studies and study abroad. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 6, 59-72. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.frontiersjournal.com/back/six/volsix.html.
Bell, R. (2001). From campesinos to campuses: Transforming education into action. Unpublished Master’s thesis, School for International Training.
Bonner, J. (2001, May/June). Risky business: Student behavior abroad. Transitions Abroad. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.transitionsabroad.com/publications/magazine/0105/bonner.shtml.
Booker, R. (2001, November). Differences between applicants and non-applicants relevant to the decision to study abroad. Paper presented at the Association for the Study of Higher Education (ASHE) International Forum, Richmond, Virginia.
Booker, R.W. (2001). Differences between applicants and non-applicants relevant to the decision to apply to study abroad. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Missouri-Columbia). Dissertation Abstracts International, 62 (04), 1337A.
In a study conducted at a large, public, mid-western university, applicants to study abroad and interested non-applicants were compared with respect to personal characteristics, study abroad preferences, and perceptions of institutional support for international education. Additionally, they were compared with respect to the influence of perceived outcomes or consequences of study abroad, perceived social pressures from important referents, and perceived obstacles to study abroad as related to the decision to apply or not apply. Factor analyses produced belief-based factors. Factors that made significant independent contributions to separating and defining the two groups were identified by stepwise discriminant function analysis. Conclusions included: (1) At this university, applicants and non-applicants are likely to be middle-class, non-minority, female students. (2) Business and journalism majors are common within both groups; journalism is prevalent among applicants. (3) Majors in chemistry, education, engineering, English, history, nursing, and psychology are more common among nonapplicants. (4) Double majors are uncommon in both groups but more likely among nonapplicants. (5) Applicants tend to be less reliant on financial aid and employment to attend college. (6) Applicants generally begin considering study abroad opportunities earlier. (7) Applicants and non-applicants tend to prefer programs in Western Europe and programs with instruction in English. (8) Foreign language programs are more popular among applicants. (9) Applicants tend to seek slightly higher levels of cultural immersion. (10) Applicants perceive the university as more supportive of international education in terms of opportunities/support for study abroad. (11) Non-applicants tend to be more influenced by factors related to academic and financial concerns. (12) In priority order the independently significant factors that directly affect the decision to apply or not apply are: (a) direction of influence of academic relationships, (b) potential consequence that study abroad may delay or complicate completion of degree, (c) financial constraints, (d) direction of influence of family/friends, (e) possibly of taking a travel break during college, (f) possibly of discovering more about the world and oneself, (g) grade point average/foreign language prerequisites, and (h) possibility that the international experience gained through study abroad will be career enhancing. (13) Academic constraints and the amount of influence of academic relationships become independently significant when the directional social factors are ignored. [Author].
Bova, R. (2000, Winter). The double transition in Russian area studies. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 6, 127-154. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.frontiersjournal.com/back/six/volsix.html.
Boyd, B.L., Giebler, C., Hince, M., Liu, Y., Mehta, N., Rash, R., Rowald, J., Saldana, C., & Yanta, Y. (2001, October). Does study abroad make a difference? An impact assessment of the international 4-H Youth Exchange Program. Journal of Extension, 39 (5). [On-Line]. Available: http://www.joe.org/joe/2001october/rb8.html.
Burak, P.A., & Hoffa, W.W. (Eds.). (2001). Crisis management in a cross-cultural setting. Washington, DC: NAFSA: Association of International Educators.
When a crisis hits, we often ask a series of questions: "What?" "Who?" "Where?" "When?" "How?" and then, "What now?" International educators know that responses to these questions may differ from culture to culture. Indeed, the very definition of what is and isn’t a ‘crisis’ may depend upon its cultural context.
A compendium of experience and expertise from many professionals in the field of international educational exchange, Crisis Management in a Cross-Cultural Setting is an essential sourcebook, designed to prepare international educators and others to respond appropriately, expeditiously, and comprehensively to crises that befall students and scholars living and learning a long way from where they call ‘home.’ Its thesis is simple: advance planning and cross-cultural sensitivity can make all the difference. [NAFSA].
Low-income students and students of color remain significantly underrepresented among American students who travel abroad. Costs and cultural factors persist as barriers to participation. As the previous examples demonstrate, students in TRIO programs can derive academic, cultural and personal benefits from study abroad. [Authors].
Cahnmann, M. (2002). Teachers’ translations of a study abroad experience. Unpublished document. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.coe.uga.edu/language/faculty/cahnmann/xalapa.pdf.
This paper explores teachers' translations of words and identities in and beyond participation in the Xalapa (Mexico). [Author].
Chao, M. (Ed.) (2001). Research on U.S. students abroad, volume II, A bibliography with abstracts 1988 – 2000. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.usc.edu/dept/education/globaled/ro/book_research_chao.htm.
In 1989, Henry Weaver edited the first version of Research on U.S. Students Abroad: An Annotated Bibliography, which brought a range of research on study abroad together in one comprehensive document available both in print and later online. The abstracts covered research through 1987. Philip Altbach published Foreign Students and International Study: Bibliography and Analysis in 1989, which is also available online. In 2000, SECUSSA put out a call for these important works to be updated. The recently completed Research on U.S. Students Abroad, Volume II covers research from 1988-2000.
There are many ways practitioners can benefit from accessing the bibliography and examining the valuable research that has been conducted in the field of study abroad. Research results can be used to provide support for campus advocacy efforts and budget struggles. Ideas can be garnered for new program planning and development. Administrators can find assessment and evaluation tools that have been tested in the field. Advisors can find useful information on marketing programs to non-traditional students. Many of the documents also include addendums such as sample forms, course syllabi, survey instruments and bibliographies.
Together the three bibliographies provide hundreds of references for articles, dissertations, papers, guides and other documents related to study abroad, most documenting research studies. The majority of references also include an annotation that provides a summary of the study or document. Both the original and updated bibliographies are hosted by the Center for Global Education at the University of Southern California (USC) and are located at http://www.usc.edu/dept/education/globaled. Search functions allow you to quickly find relevant documents. For convenience annotations are classified into the following categories: Cross Cultural Issues, Evaluations, Guides, Impact Studies, Language Acquisition, Miscellaneous, General Overviews, Program Descriptions, Research and Theoretical Presentations. [SECUSSA].
Chichester, M., & Akomolafe, S. (2003, January). Minorities and underrepresented groups in international affairs and the foreign policy establishment. Paper presented at the Global Challenges & U.S. Higher Education Conference, Duke University. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.duke.edu/web/cis/globalchallenges/research_papers.html.
This paper articulates a research agenda to address the issue of minority underrepresentation in international affairs. It presents a synopsis of the problems posed by minority underrepresenation in international education at U.S. colleges and universities, and it points up as well as the ramifications for the formulation and implementation of foreign policy. It then examines, through a review of select and prominent literature, the types of research necessary to inform efforts to improve minority enrollment in international education programs, most importantly the development of data banks on emerging trends. If and when available, such information can be used to assess the nature of the relationship between minority enrollment in certain programs in higher education and minority underrepresentation in international affairs, to see if a correlation can be established as is presumed. However, given the inconsistency and scanty availability of data, formulating authoritative conclusions about the status of minorities in international affairs is at best difficult. Even though existing literature seems to suggest an apparent growing movement toward internationalization on many of the nation’s campuses, including a small set of minority institutions, current research has yet to focus on the role of higher education in integrating minorities into the foreign policy environment. [Authors].
Chieffo, L.P. (2001, February). Determinants of student participation in study abroad programs at the University of Delaware: A quantitative study. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Delaware, 2000). Dissertation Abstracts International, 61 (08), 3078A.
The University of Delaware initiated a long tradition of study abroad programs sponsored by American colleges and universities when it founded the Junior Year Abroad in 1923. Since that time the number of American undergraduates participating in overseas study opportunities has grown to over 115,00 per year, and the University of Delaware consistently ranks among the top schools nationally in the number of students it sends abroad. Over the years educators have promoted foreign study in the belief that a sojourn abroad yields certain personal and academic benefits, and in fact this appears to be the case. Research indicates that under specific circumstances students who study abroad demonstrate increased second language proficiency, intercultural understanding, and knowledge of the host country, and a more mature, realistic self-appraisal than their peers who remain on the home campus. Given the benefits of study abroad, and the current emphasis on global communications and trade, it is surprising that the majority of students, both nationally and at the University of Delaware, do not take advantage of this educational opportunity. The purpose of this quantitative study is to investigate why some students study abroad and others do not, and to analyze the factors which influence their participation decisions. The primary data collection instrument is a survey which was distributed to over 1,000 students in thirty classes at the University of Delaware during the fall of 1999. Statistical data analysis yielded intriguing results. In general, students reported not being very well informed
about the University's programs abroad, despite an extensive recruitment campaign. Their participation decisions were greatly influenced by peers and parents, only minimally by faculty, and those who did not go abroad rated program cost as the major reason for non-participation. Finally, the survey found significant differences between first-year and upperclass students, and among various majors, with regard to their participation decisions. If the University is to increase enrollment in its study abroad programs, these issues must be addressed as part of a comprehensive plan actively supported by administrators, faculty, and professionals to create an image of an institution with a core focus on international education. [Author].
Chieffo, L.P., & Zipser, R.A. (2001, Spring). Integrating study abroad into the foreign language curriculum. ADFL Bulletin, 32 (3), 79-85.
In order to avoid preaching to the choir, we have purposely said little in this article about the many benefits students derive from study abroad. Instead we have provided examples of integration between our programs abroad and those on campus and have given some suggestions for ensuring their success. It goes without saying that we designed all our programs with the pedagogical goal of providing unique learning opportunities for our undergraduates. Well-designed overseas programs, when combined with on-campus programs that incorporate coursework done abroad, can provide powerful incentives for students—even those with marginal interest in learning a foreign language—to continue their language study and move up the ladder from the lower to the most advanced level. We mentioned the numerous advantages that successful programs abroad can bring to foreign language departments: stronger relations with other units and a higher profile on campus, increased enrollments in advanced courses, faculty development, and the like. Yet apart from their benefits to individual students and departments, study-abroad programs are very highly valued at the university level as well. They help attract the best applicants to our institution, and they play a major role in the ongoing effort to internationalize the undergraduate student body. In short, treating study-abroad programs as an integral (and integrated) part of the on-campus curriculum yields benefits for students, departments, and the institution as a whole. [Authors].
Citron, J.L. & Kline, R. (2001, Fall). From experience to experiential education: Taking study abroad outside the comfort zone. International Educator, 10 (4), 18-26.
College Legal Information. (date unknown). Managing liability and overseas programs. Nashville, TN: College Legal Information, Inc.
This series of essays is designed to educate and inform overseas study administrators, supervisors, counselors, and staff about the legal implications of decisions they make. Knowing the law and adopting preventive measures is the best way to cope with the law, prevent legal challenges, and reduce exposure.
Overseas program administrators often make or participate in decisions that can lead to litigation. For example, administrators who work with study abroad students develop working relationships with overseas and foreign institutions; counsel and advise students and parents; apply rules of conduct and enforce disciplinary standards; employ risk reducing strategies by using releases and waivers; and may be called upon to interface with the media in the unfortunate event of a crisis overseas. In sum, administrators significantly affect the effectiveness and exposure of the overseas study program.
Every year more college students participate in study abroad programs and in more challenging environments. Accordingly, overseas program administrators encounter various responsibilities involving the safety and well being of participants, the need to prevent exposure of the institution to liability, and to monitor all aspects of the program and campus and overseas personnel.
This manual on Managing Liability focuses
on: The Expanding Scope of International Programs; Organizational Relationships
and Legal Exposure; Students and Off-Campus Misconduct; Extraterritorial
Application of Federal Statutes, Sources of Liability; Orientation and Program;
Assessment; Risk Reducing Strategies; Duty of Advisors; Crisis Management and
Media Relations; Releases and Participation Agreements.
Each of these essays is presented with a common format: Overview, Application, and Preventive Planning. A Selected Bibliography follows each topic. Additionally, sample releases, participation agreements, a program checklist, and an orientation assessment are provided. A chart of federal statute applicability to study abroad programs is included. [CLI].
Collins, N., & Davidson, D. (2002, October/November). From the margin to the mainstream: Innovative approaches to internationalizing education for a new century. Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning, 34 (5), 50-58.
Comp, D.J. (Ed.). (2003). Research on U.S. students abroad, additional resources: A Bibliography with Abstracts - 1987. To be incorporated into the LMU Center for Global Education, Study Abroad Research On-Line website found at: http://www.usc.edu/dept/education/globaled/ro/index.html. Currently available by e-mail from firstname.lastname@example.org.
This bibliography was compiled to make available additional resources and a very limited number of annotations of education abroad research studies that are not currently included in the valuable Henry D. Weaver “Research on U.S. Students Abroad: An Annotated Bibliography.” [DJC].
Comp, D.J. (Ed.). (2003). Research on U.S. students abroad, additional resources: A Bibliography with Abstracts, 1988 - 2000. To be incorporated into the LMU Center for Global Education, Study Abroad Research On-Line website found at: http://www.usc.edu/dept/education/globaled/ro/index.html. Currently available by e-mail from email@example.com.
This bibliography was compiled to make available additional resources and annotations of education abroad research studies that are not currently included in the valuable Maureen Chao “Research on U.S. Students Abroad, Volume II, A Bibliography with Abstracts 1988 – 2000.” [DJC].
Comp, D.J., (Ed.). (2002). Research on underrepresented students and education abroad: An annotated bibliography. Hosted on the SECUSSA Committee on Underrepresentation in Education Abroad webpage at <http://www.secussa.nafsa.org/underrepresentation/underrep_bib_comp.htm> and the CIEE: Council on International Educational Exchange, Commitment to Diversity webpage at <http://www.ciee.org/uploads/underrep_bibliog.pdf>. This bibliography may also be obtained by e-mailing: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Students with Disabilities
Community College Students
Human/Social Service Students
Medical & Nursing Students
Misc. Underrepresentation Articles
Comments and revisions as well as copies of papers are invited and encouraged. Comments and submissions may be sent to David Comp, Ph.D. at email@example.com. A special thank you and recognition is due to the SECUSSA Committee on Underrepresentation in Education Abroad and the Council on International Educational Exchange (CIEE) for making this bibliography available on their websites. [Editor].
Comp, D.J., & Campos, A.G. (2002). Identifying sojourner change after a study abroad experience: A content analysis approach. Research paper currently under review for publication.
Cooper, R. (2001). Globe-trotting through law school. Student Lawyer, 24 (5), 22.
Couper, G.E. (2001). The psychology of travel: A theoretical analysis of how study abroad and positive regression affect personal growth. Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University. AZ.
Curthoys, A. (2000, Winter). Australian studies and study abroad. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 6, 47-58. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.frontiersjournal.com/back/six/volsix.html.
Davidson, D.E. (2002, October 25). When just being there is not enough. Paper presented at the Conference on Language Gain in the Study Abroad Environment, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI.
The student records database of the American Council of Teachers of Russian (ACTR) on study abroad learning now contains more than 3000 learning histories for study abroad participants of varying backgrounds and immersion durations. The present report updates previous studies (including "Predictors of Gain," Brecht, Davidson, Ginsberg) on the effects of varying durations of immersion on typical post-program language outcomes (language gains expressed in proficiency terms) for speaking, reading, and listening typical for summer, semester, or academic year-long program durations. The study considers a fairly broad range of learner variables including initial language levels, years of prior study, learning styles, and learning backgrounds represented within the student population. Such outcomes-based data are seen as significant for study abroad program evaluation and policy formation more generally, given the size of the learner population and the broad range of institutions represented in the ACTR data. Having established baseline data for different program durations and learning histories, the paper then turns briefly to report on the results of four specific intervention strategies on predicted program outcomes; 1) meta-cognitive preparation of learners in self-managed learning; 2) targeted training of teachers in Russia in student-centered learning and proficiency-based program development; 3) a revised mechanism for selection and monitoring of homestay placements. Data collected over the past four years show that the specific interventions produced statistically significant (.002) "yields"/ improvements in oral proficiency gains/ in comparison to learners of equivalent background and initial levels of language competence in control groups. Possible and on-going adjustments in study abroad immersion-learning models are noted for learner groups with different threshold levels of language competence. [Author].
Demetry, C., & Vaz, R.F. (2002, November). International project experiences: Assessing impact on students’ educational and personal development. Presentation at the ASEE/IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference, Boston, MA. [Summary – On-Line]. Available: http://fie.engrng.pitt.edu/fie2002/papers/1511.pdf
We are examining the impact of global, inderdisciplinary project experiences on WPI (Worchester Polytechnic Institute) students. A first step is to understand pre-existing differences in students who choose to do their project overseas and those who do not. Here we report results of an analysis of CIRP freshman survey data that shows significant differences in social and civic orientation between these two cohorts of students. [Authors].
Dewey, D. (2002, October 25). Study abroad in Japan: The ideal environment for learning to read? Paper presented at the Conference on Language Gain in the Study Abroad Environment, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI.
In this presentation, I will describe in detail a study of the development of reading processes and comprehension during study abroad (SA) in Japan. I will begin by providing brief overviews of research on language learning during SA in Japan and on the development of reading during SA in general. I will then describe a study involving a comparison between American students learning Japanese in an intensive language program in Japan and students in a summer intensive domestic immersion (IM) program in the U.S. Measures of reading included in this study were think aloud and free recall protocols, self assessments and vocabulary knowledge tests. Findings include: 1) a lack of significant differences between SA and IM groups in terms of changes over time on major measures of reading comprehension; 2) the presence of significant differences in terms of changes in reading processes (IM group monitored understanding less and showed affective reaction more over time than the SA group); 3) differences in the growth of background knowledge (knowledge that can often facilitate reading comprehension). Interaction with others (in particular teachers) in Japanese played a major role in predicting changes in reading processes over time. In addition, variation in terms of changes on reading measures was significantly greater for the SA group than for the IM group. I will discuss these and other results and will conclude with suggestions for further research, in particular on the topic of literacy development during SA. [Author].
Doan, T.M. (2002, January). Asian American students: Study abroad participation, perspectives and experiences. Unpublished Masters thesis, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN.
This study examines factors influencing study abroad participation among Asian American students at the University of Minnesota, particularly focusing on the possible ways a student’s cultural and immigration background can impact her/his decision and experience while abroad. In addition to looking at Asian Americans as a whole, this study also examines disparities that may exist among various communities of Asian American Students in the context of study abroad. [Author].
Doherty, K., & Goff, L. (2002, October). London calling: Exploring and discovering what students really learn overseas. Presentation at the 31st Annual Conference of the National Society for Experiential Education, Las Vegas, Nevada. [Presentation materials On-Line]. Available: http://assnmgrs.com/nsee/Cross_cultural/Cross_Cultural_LIBRARY.htm.
Dowell, M.M., & Mirsky, K.P. (2002). Study abroad: How to get the most out of your experience. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, Inc.
Via personalized exercises, this self-directed workbook guides students through five distinct strands of development, all of which are necessary to fully capitalize on their study abroad experience. Strands include: personal development, learning about one's own culture, learning about another culture, professional development, and learning a language, and each is addressed at the three crucial phases of the experience: before, during and after the sojourn. One major goal of the text is to offer a purposeful agenda to help students move from being the conventional tourist to an explorer who truly acquires an authentic view of another culture. [Authors].
DuFon, M.A., Adams, R., Churchil, E., & McMeekin, M. (2001, October). Second language acquisition in study abroad contexts. Papers presented at the Pacific Second Language Research Forum, University of Hawai'i at Manoa.
It is commonly believed that language study abroad is the most effective and efficient road to proficiency in a foreign language. Yet while the empirical research on learners in study abroad programs has determined that study abroad has a strong positive effect on the development of fluency, communication strategies and sociolinguistic competence, many questions pertaining to SLA in a study abroad context remain unanswered. For example, with a few exceptions, the findings of studies to date tell us little about actual language use or the nature of the social interaction between learners and competent native speakers of the host culture and their effects on the process of language acquisition. Furthermore attempts to measure changes in interlanguage development often yield divergent findings (Freed, 1995). In order to advance our knowledge in these areas, this colloquium will begin by taking a critical look at various measures of language assessment that have been used to measure learner gains in study abroad contexts and then present empirical evidence (Paper #1) in support of the use of multiple methods in order to obtain accurate profiles of language learners. Then three more studies will be presented which have incorporated multiple methods to examine the nature of the social interaction between the learners and native speakers of the host culture and the effect of this social interaction on the acquisition of both linguistic and social information. Paper #2 primarily utilizes diary data to examine socialization into American culture via participation in routines. Paper #3 focuses on conversational data to compare the negotiation of meaning in both classroom and homestay situations in Japan and Paper #4 examines the socialization of taste by study abroad learners in Indonesia using microanalysis of discourse and learner journals. Moreover, the pedagogical implications of all the studies will be discussed. [Presenters].
Dunstan, P. (2001, Winter). Internationalizing the student experience: How serious are we? International Educator, 10 (1), 34-40.
An analysis of how internationalization works in Australia yields insights and ideas for improved practices worldwide. [Author].
Edwards, J. (2000, Winter). The “other Eden”: Thoughts on American study abroad in Britain. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 6, 83-98. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.frontiersjournal.com/back/six/volsix.html.
Engberg, D., & Green, M.F. ( Eds.). (2000). Promising practices: Spotlighting excellence in comprehensive internationalization. Washington, D.C.: American Council on Education. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.acenet.edu/bookstore/pdf/2002_promising-practices.pdf.
Promising Practices: Spotlighting Excellence in Comprehensive Internationalization showcases the efforts of eight U.S. colleges and universities that are leading the movement to educate a globally competent citizenry. Each case study, written by one or more representatives of the institution profiled, details the college’s goals, programs, and activities related to internationalization, as well as challenges and future plans. Taken together, the case studies suggest a comprehensive road map to internationalization for any institution committed to internationalizing undergraduate education. [ACE].
Fagan, C., & Hart, D. (2002, May). Exploring the effects of study abroad on long-term life choices. Poster session at the Annual NAFSA: Association of International Educators Conference in San Antonio, TX.
Using the database of Cultural Experiences Abroad (CEA) a third-party study abroad provider, data was gathered from 185 primarily undergraduate students who spent from two weeks to one year as participants in a study abroad program. The survey consisted of an on-line questionnaire that included topics such as interest in working in international companies, studying other cultures, and traveling abroad during the past five years. The study suggests that study abroad experiences do have an effect on what returning students choose to do with regard to future college studies, career aspirations, and readiness to pursue further travel outside the US borders. [Authors].
Falcetta, F.M. (2001). The globalization of community colleges. In M. Tillman (Ed.), Study abroad: A 21st century perspective, volume II, the changing landscape (pp. 7-9). Stamford, CT: American Institute for Foreign Study Foundation. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.aifs.com/aifsfoundation/21century.htm.
Falk, R., & Kanach, N.A. (2000, Winter). Globalization and study abroad: An illusion of paradox. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 6, 155-168. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.frontiersjournal.com/back/six/volsix.html.
Fantini, A.E. (Ed.). (2002, Winter). SIT occasional papers series: Study abroad: Student essays and research. Brattleboro, VT: World Learning, School for International Training, The Experiment in International Living. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.sit.edu/publications/sitops_03.html.
The SIT Occasional Papers Series is dedicated to advancing knowledge, skills, and awareness of theory and practice in the fields of intercultural communication, language education, training, and service. The Series presents items of interest to educators, trainers, practitioners, researchers, and students. These include essays, articles, reports of current research, and evaluations, as well as information about SIT, World Learning, Projects in International Development and Training, The Experiment in International Living, and the international federation to which they belong. [SIT].
Feinberg, B. (2002, May 3). What students don’t learn abroad. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 48 (34), B20. [On-Line]. Available: http://chronicle.com/weekly/v48/i34/34b02001.htm.
Felbeck Chalou, C., Lebold, C.J., Ganie, L., & Powers, C. (2001, Winter). Study abroad in the rainbow nation: Post-apartheid South Africa offers interesting and complex educational possibilities. International Educator, 10 (1), 20-28.
Fordham, T.A. (2002). Cultural capital and the making of 'blue blazer kids': An ethnography of a youth exchange program. (Doctoral dissertation, Syracuse University). Dissertation Abstracts International, 63, 899A.
This dissertation is a culmination of three years of participant observation of a Rotary International district in New England. The dissertation explores the ways in which a group of adults teaches teenagers about cultural difference. More specifically, this ethnographic project, which utilizes narrative, discourse, and content analyses, examines the complex pedagogical machinery used by this Rotary International district to recruit, interview, and American high school students for study abroad. The theories that guided this work are The Sociology of Knowledge, Symbolic Interactionism, Critical Theory, and Cultural Studies. I first provide a summary of this Rotary district's youth exchange program, including its goals, strategies and its expectations of and requirements for students. Secondly, I explore the ways in which Rotarians talk about, or discursively construct youth as a social category. I juxtapose Rotarians' narratives surrounding teenagers with dominant discourses extant in the United States regarding American teens. I then examine the ways in which Rotarians talk about and represent travel, particularly educational travel and cultural immersion. Lastly, I discuss Rotary's discourses of culture & how Rotarians talked about culture, itself, and the ways in which they represented specific cultures to students and to one another. I assert that the Rotary Youth Exchange Program, by recruiting and sending middle class kids to live in upper-class environments, reinscribe race and class privilege. Rotary's program, for American kids in particular, is a form of cultural capital that exists to reproduce a global business class. I also posit that Rotary Youth Exchange students, however, have agency as they resist and transgress the specific boundaries of Rotary's program and negotiate issues of cultural adaptation and personal change. [Author].
Foster, P.B. (2001, Fall). A language and cultural practicum course in Nanjing: Maximizing the student’s use of Chinese. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 7, 121-128. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.frontiersjournal.com/back/seven/volseven.html.
Fountain, A. (2001, winter). Developing a program for Spanish heritage learners in a small college setting. ADFL Bulletin, 32 (2), 29-32.
A small private woman’s college in Raleigh with a traditional student base from the eastern part of North Carolina seems, at first glance, an unlikely locale for a program designed for Spanish heritage learners. Yet, in recent years, the United States Hispanic population has grown significantly even in areas not traditionally Hispanic, such as North Carolina. With a now burgeoning Spanish-language heritage population, North Carolina’s educational institutions are being challenged at all levels to provide both a hospitable setting and appropriate curricular adaptations to serve the needs of this group, and small private colleges are no exception. The experience of Peace College provides an example of how a school that has not traditionally served Hispanic students can build programs for such heritage learners and how institutions with a relatively small Hispanic population can provide appropriate curriculum and resources for such learners.
Peace College, because of its size and constituency, has used its defining characteristics and its special interests to build a small but viable program for its students of Hispanic background—combining curriculum initiatives with travel opportunities, cultural events, and links to the community. Key components of this process and how they were developed are the focus of this article.
At Peace College, outreach to Spanish heritage learners has been targeted in five major ways: (1) through curricular additions and adaptations; (2) through the development and promotion of specialized library resources; (3) through travel in the United States and abroad; (4) through connections to the Hispanic community and to agencies and businesses with links to Hispanics; and (5) through campus activities and services. In addition, a conscious effort has been made to sensitize the campus to the cultural- and language-specific interests of young women from a Hispanic background. [Author].
Geiger, K. (undated). Fulbrighters abroad: Personal accounts of global experiences. Washington, D.C.: The Fulbright Program.
This publication contains excerpts taken from personal accounts of American Fulbright Grantees. [DJC].
Global Campus Staff. (2001, July). Internationalizing the campus: bibliography. Curriculum Integration at the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. [On-Line]. Available: . http://www.umabroad.umn.edu/curriculum/resources/intl_campus.html.
Global Campus Staff. (2001). Outcomes of study abroad: bibliography. Curriculum Integration at the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.umabroad.umn.edu/curriculum/resources/outcomes.html#c.
Gorka, B., & Niesenbaum, R. (2001, March). Beyond the language requirement: Interdisciplinary short-term study abroad programs in Spanish. Hispania, 84 (1), 100-109.
El artículo describe los beneficios de ofrecer un programa de estudio interdisciplinario usando viajes cortos (dos semanas) a países de habla española. Los beneficios incluyen: una conexión entre materias (idioma y otros ramos), una apreciación de la interacción entre lengua, cultura y otras disciplinas, y un entendimiento de lo que se requiere para llegar a ser competente en un idioma. El programa se diseña para alumnos de primer y segundo año que acaban de completar el requisito académico de idioma, pero que no planean especializarse en español. El viaje no es el único componente del programa. Los alumnos participan en cursos de preparación tanto cultural como en su área de especialidad, y, al regresar del viaje, presentan los resultados de sus proyectos de investigación. Los autores admiten que este tipo de programa requiere mucho apoyo de la administración y mucha colaboración entre el profesorado de departamentos diferentes. Sin embargo, observan que el programa anima a los estudiantes que participan a considerar otros programas de estudio en el extranjero para semestres que vienen, resultado positivo en vista de la globalización de hoy en día. [La enseñanza de la cultura].
Gray, K.S., Murdock, G.K., & Stebbins, C.D. (2002, May/June). Assessing study abroad’s effect on an international mission. Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning, 45-51. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.mssc.edu/news/change02.pdf.
Hannah, B.B. (2002, Summer). All abroad! Extra credit for life. Strong Investor, 14-16. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.estrong.com/strongweb/strong/jsp/learn/investor/summer02/story09.jsp?BV_UseBVCookie=yes
This is a brief article written by a returned sojourner recounting his semester studying abroad in Florence. [DJC].
Hannigan, T.P. (2001, Fall). The effect of work abroad experiences on career development for U.S. undergraduates. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 1-23. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.frontiersjournal.com/back/seven/hannigan.htm.
The purpose of this research was to examine the effect of vocational exploratory behavior on vocational self-concept crystallization (VSCC) and work commitment for U.S. undergraduates who participated in practical experiences overseas, compared to two groups: 1.) students not involved in practical experiences, and 2.) students who participated in practical experiences within the U.S. The above constructs are well-established in the vocational psychology literature and will be discussed later. In reviewing the literature, the effect of learning experiences in the workplace on work commitment and vocational self-concept crystallization has not been clearly demonstrated. In spite of the lack of definitive empirical support for this relationship, a long historical tradition exists for the learning-by-doing method, and this tradition is an important means of training students in a profession or trade. [Author].
Hanratty, K. (2001, Summer). Full circle learning in study abroad. International Educator, 10 (3), 28-34.
Harley, B. (2001, January/February). Going native or standing firm: Cultural relativism. Transitions Abroad, 24 (4). [On-Line]. Available: http://www.transitionsabroad.com/publications/magazine/0101/activist.shtml.
Harpur, J. (date unknown). The impact of exchange programs on student’s personal and professional development. Center for International Business Studies, Memorial University of Newfoundland.
Hartung. E. (2002, Spring). The student as outsider. International Educator, 11 (2), 28-34. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.nafsa.org/content/ProfessionalandEducationalresources/publications/Ie/archivehome.htm.
To be an outsider or stranger in a foreign culture is always a challenge. Although the outsider has an opportunity to better understand a different culture as well as find out more about him or herself, the experience isn't always a comfortable one. Study abroad students often find themselves in this position. The lessons they learn while away from home studying language or the arts are not necessarily those that the student expected, but out of tension and incongruity, they may derive a different sense of who they are. This article examines that process for a group of U.S. university students. [Author].
Harteker, L. (2001, Spring). Road safety for study abroad: A shared challenge. United Educators, Reason & Risk. A publication of the Association for Safe International Road Travel. [On-line]. Available: http://www.asirt.org/Publications/unitededucators.htm or http://www.asirt.org/Publications/UnitedEducators.pdf.
Hayward, F.M., & Siaya, L.M. (2001). Public Experience, Attitudes, and Knowledge: A Report on Two National Surveys about International Education. Washington, D.C.: American Council on Education. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.acenet.edu/bookstore/pdf/2001-intl-report.pdf.
This is a report detailing the findings of two surveys related to international education. The first examined the public’s international experience and knowledge, and attitudes about international education, while the second surveyed high school seniors’ plans to participate in international activities once they enter college. A Report on Two National Surveys About International Education reveals a growing public recognition that international knowledge and experience are increasingly important to daily life and global economic success. [ACE].
Hebel, S. (2002, January 11). Advocates for students with disabilities criticize Education Dept. ruling on study-abroad program. The Chronicle of Higher Education, A31.
Henson, H. (2001). An effective consortial model for study abroad: A history of the college consortium for international studies. In M. Tillman (Ed.), Study abroad: A 21st century perspective, volume II, the changing landscape (pp. 10-11). Stamford, CT: American Institute for Foreign Study Foundation. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.aifs.com/aifsfoundation/21century.htm.
Henthorne, T.L., Miller, M.M., & Hudson, T.W. (2001). Building and positioning successful study-abroad programs: A ``hands-on'' approach. Journal of Teaching in International Business, 12 (4), 49-62
The growth in importance of international education is inescapable. The ability to effectively compete in the global environment is linked to many factors-one of which is a knowledge and understanding of the cultures involved. The traditional classroom approach to international business education, while useful, is limited in scope and impact. We approach the issue of international business education from a hands-on, action-oriented immersion approach-the study-abroad program. This paper examines the specifics of developing and implementing such a program, as well as pitfalls to avoid. [Authors].
Hochauser, G.A. (2001). Demographic factors redefining education abroad. In M. Tillman (Ed.), Study abroad: A 21st century perspective, volume II, the changing landscape (pp. 12-13). Stamford, CT: American Institute for Foreign Study Foundation. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.aifs.com/aifsfoundation/21century.htm.
Hoffa, W. (Ed.). (2000, Winter/2001, Summer). Advice for parents: Frequently asked questions. SAFETI On-Line Newsletter, 2 (1). [On-Line]. Available: http://www.usc.edu/dept/education/globaled/safeti/newsletter.html.
Hoffa, W. (2002). It’s your world: Student’s guide to education abroad. Chester, PA: Educational Directories Unlimited, Inc. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.studyabroad.com/handbook/.
The contents of this handbook are intended for the use of students, advisors, and administrators. [Editor]. This handbook is the result of an approved project by NAFSA’s Section on U.S. Students Abroad, SECUSSA.
Hoff, J., Van Der Meid, J.S., & Doan, T. (2002, November 7). Asian American participation in study abroad. Presentation at the Annual CIEE: Council on International Educational Exchange Conference, Atlanta, GA. [Handouts – On-Line]. Available: J. Hoff: http://www.ciee.org/uploads/joe.hoff.session.pdf; J.S. Van Der Meid: http://www.ciee.org/uploads/van.der.meid.session.pdf; T. Doan: http://www.ciee.org/uploads/thuy.doan.session.pdf; Bibliography: http://www.ciee.org/atl_asian_am_biblio.cfm?subnav=conference.
Holland, K.M., & Kedia, B.L. (2001, September). Internationalizing business students through the study abroad experience: Marketing and recruitment challenges. Unpublished paper submitted for the International Roundtable on Study Abroad Programs in Business Schools, Michigan State University, East Lansing University. This paper examines the reasons for the lack of study abroad experiences among business school students as compared to liberal arts students. An extensive survey of AACSB accredited institutions was conducted to understand their practices for providing (or lack thereof) international experience through study abroad programs. The paper specifically focuses on marketing challenges for study abroad programs. Suggestions are made to improve the situation for providing international experiences to business students to make them more effective in the global economy. [Authors].
Holt, A.M., Jordan, S.A., & Jorgensen, J.S. (2002, September). How to assure learning outcomes of study abroad. Presentation at the Annual EAIE Conference, Porto, Portugal.
We send students abroad expecting them to develop their language skills, their personality and to acquire an intercultural competency. This is generally expected to happen by osmosis, that is, by being surrounded by people from a foreign culture speaking a foreign language. Between 1997 and 2000, a study was undertaken in the UK to analyse how studies abroad are integrated into modern language programmes in the UK and identify ways to enhance the learning outcomes. The result is the LARA project (Learning And Residence Abroad): its course materials are designed to train students to take responsibility for their own linguistic and intercultural learning, using ethnographic methods. The session investigated ways to assure learning outcomes of study abroad and discussed how we can create an understanding of the importance of issue in order to have it brought on the political agenda. The LARA project is located on-line at <http://lara.fdtl.ac.uk/lara/index.htm> [Authors].
Howard, M. (2001, August). The effects of study abroad on the L2 learner’s structural skills: Evidence from advanced learners of French. EUROSLA Yearbook, 1 (1), 123-141.
This article compares the relative effect of study abroad as opposed to foreign language instruction on an aspect of the L2 learner’s grammatical development, namely the expression of past time in target language (TL) French. Based on a cross-sectional quantitative analysis of oral data elicited from Irish advanced learners, a number of differences and similarities emerge between the learners’ development in the TL community and in the foreign language classroom. On the one hand, the more beneficial effect of study abroad is evident insofar as the study abroad learners attain a higher level of accuracy in their use of past time morphology across a more expansive range of aspectual contexts. On the other hand, however, similarities are also evident between the learners in both domains of acquisition. Based on a variationist analysis which controls for the effect of a number of linguistic factors on the learners’ choice of past time marker (grammatical aspect, inherent lexical aspect, and discourse grounding), the learners’ contextual use of past time morphology appears to be relatively similar. The results are firstly dicussed in relation to existing research evidence concerning the L2 learner’s grammatical development during study abroad, and secondly, in relation to the question of the manifestation of grammatical development in the L2 learner. [Author].
Hoye, W., & Dwyer, M. (2001, February). Legal liability and study abroad from the perspective of a lawyer and a client. Paper presented at the Annual National Conference on law and Higher Education, Florida.
Hubbs, C. (2001). The impact of communications technology on the study abroad field. In M. Tillman (Ed.), Study abroad: A 21st century perspective, volume II, the changing landscape (pp. 14-16). Stamford, CT: American Institute for Foreign Study Foundation. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.aifs.com/aifsfoundation/21century.htm.
Huber, C.A. (2002). Simulations: More than just a game? Unpublished capstone paper, School for International Training.
Hudson, D.R. (2001). Grade point average as a predictor of academic achievement for a credit abroad, language acquisition course. (Doctoral dissertation, The University of Southern Mississippi). Dissertation Abstracts International, 63 (01), 38A
Academic policymakers and administrators are charged with the responsibility of articulating and applying appropriate threshold criteria in order to affect desired learning outcomes. As international education becomes more central to the higher education experience and as the learning outcomes available for international education become increasingly essential to successful global citizenry, appropriate and judicious policies and practices must be developed. The study examined the relationship between the degree of student success on an academic study abroad program (final course grade) and the independent variables of cumulative grade point average (CPA), status, and gender. Participants included in the study were all students who participated in a 5-week summer study abroad Spanish language acquisition program in Mexico for the years 1996, 1997, and 1998. For program participation, students were required to be in good academic standing at their home institutions and have a minimum of a 2.0 grade point average. There were 107 participants included in the study. The data were analyzed using multiple linear regression with a .05 alpha level for all tests of statistical significance. There was a statistically significant relationship (p = .05) between the dependent variable of final course grade and the composite set of variables of cumulative GPA, gender, status, and their interactions. When testing individual variables while controlling for the others present in the full model, only cumulative GPA and the interaction of status and gender were shown to be statistically significant. The general purpose of the study was to determine if cumulative GPA, a commonly employed access threshold, was a reliable predictor of academic achievement on a study abroad, language acquisition course. The growing demand for international experiences for students, as evidenced by governmental and institutional policies and increasing numbers of participants in study abroad programs, will necessitate the development of fair and effective administrative policies grounded in outcomes-oriented research. The results coupled with the mission of the university may be used to assist administrators in formulating policies on admission to such credit abroad programs and generally help undergird procedures utilized to implement international education. [Author].
Hult, G.T.M. (Ed.). (2002, May). Study abroad programs in business schools: Issues and recommendations by leading educators. Report of the Michigan State University Center for International Business Education and Research (CIBER) 2001 Roundtable on Study Abroad Programs in Business Schools. AACSB International. [On-Line]. Available: http://ciber.msu.edu/research/books/StudyAbroadRoundtableBooklet.pdf.
Ingulsrud, J.E., Kai, K., Kadowaki, S., Kurobane, S., & Shiobara, M. (2002, September). The assessment of cross-cultural experience: Measuring awareness through critical text analysis. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 26 (5), 473-491.
A holistic model of assessing cross-cultural experience is developed employing both authentic assessment and quantitative methods. Authentic assessment methods address the multi-faceted nature of cross-cultural experience. In this case, portfolios are used, involving the students in the assessment process. Within the context of portfolio assessment, a quantitative instrument is presented, measuring the degree of cross-cultural awareness by locating evidence of critical thinking in student-generated text. The intention of the quantitative instrument is to provide an index for the achievement of our educational objective, cross-cultural awareness. This assessment is carried out by multiple raters. Findings indicate that interrater reliability is maintained, and results from a study with independent raters suggest that the method can be easily acquired and conducted reliably. [Authors].
Institute for the International Education of Students. (2001, October). The IES MAP (Model Assessment Practice) for study abroad: Charting a course for quality (2nd Ed.). Chicago: Institute for the International Education of Students. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.iesabroad.org/menus/ies_MAP.htm
The IES MAP© (Model Assessment Practice) for Study Abroad was created in response to the growing need for more effective program development and assessment in international education. The IES MAP© is an educational tool for designing and evaluating study abroad programs and is the first of its kind in the field. It was developed by a task force of outstanding leaders in both international and U.S. higher education who drew on extensive site visits and solid data analyses of a wide variety of program components.
Initially, the IES MAP© was created for use by IES to assess existing programs and develop new ones. However, it also can be significant benefit to faculty and administrators at U.S. colleges and universities, to study abroad professionals and accrediting organizations, as well as to students and their parents.
The IES MAP© focuses on four academic areas: the student learning environment; student learning and the development of intercultural competence; resources for academic and student support; and program administration and development. [IES].
Institute of International Education. (date unknown). "Best practices" Tactics to increase access to international scholarship programs by women and other under-represented groups. New York: Institute of International Education. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.iie.org/Content/NavigationMenu/Research_Publications/Best_Practices/Best_Practices.htm.
The ideas in "Best Practices" were collected in the course of a study by the Institute of International Education (IIE), with Ford Foundation funding, to promote greater participation by developing country women in international scholarship programs. We believe many of the points are applicable to other under-represented groups as well. Some of the "tactics" included seem quite obvious; they form the core of any basic checklist of steps to insure equal access. During the study, however, we found that even some of these basic steps were not followed by some major scholarship programs. Your additional suggestions and feedback are warmly invited, so that the list of "best practices" includes the widest input from experts in the field. Send your comments by email to: firstname.lastname@example.org or by mail to: Room 800, 809 UN Plaza, New York, NY 10017. [IIE].
Institute of International Education., (date unknown). Study abroad: A guide for women. New York: Institute of International Education. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.iie.org/Content/NavigationMenu/Research_Publications/Women/Women.htm.
Despite recent progress, the percentage of women participants in international scholarship programs remains markedly lower than that of men. To address this problem, the Institute of International Education (IIE), with support from the Ford Foundation, surveyed a number of these programs to identify why some were more successful than others in attracting and retaining women candidates. At the end of the study, IIE sponsored a conference at which program administrators, funding agencies, and program alumnae came together to develop a set of recommendations to promote the increased participation of women in international scholarship programs.
This handbook, one product of the Ford-supported project, offers women around the world practical information on the variety of issues involved in study abroad.* Much of the material in this handbook is based on in-depth interviews with a group of program alumnae who met with IIE staff to discuss their personal experiences studying abroad. Hailing from countries as widely separated both geographically and culturally as Argentina and the Sudan, Hungary and Indonesia, Costa Rica and South Africa, each participant brought her own perspective and unique anecdotal reflections to the conversation. Despite the group’s inherent diversity, it became clear that these women also had much in common—as international students, as engaged and committed professionals, and, not least, as women pursuing their dreams in what is still largely a man’s world.
We are immensely grateful to the many women who participated in this research project: those interviewed and surveyed, the conferees, advisory committee members, report authors, and those at the Ford Foundation who supported the effort.
*This booklet is not just for women. Clearly, men face some of the same bureaucratic hurdles as women. Nonetheless, the barriers to women’s participation are often extremely subtle, culturally imbedded in long-held societal assumptions that can be difficult to recognize, and, once identified, even more problematic to overcome. Therefore, the concerns of women serve to frame the many issues that are addressed in this booklet. [IIE].
Jamison, A. (2001). Diversity issues in study abroad. Providence, RI: Office of International Programs, Brown University. [On-Line]. Available:
This is a collection of quotes by Brown University students about their experiences abroad. The quotes were gathered through a survey of study abroad students returning from either spring semester/full year 1999-2000 or fall semester 2000-2001 abroad. The survey directly addressed issues of diversity in study abroad including ethnicity, heritage, sexual orientation, religion, minority/majority issues, physical appearance, and language. It was designed to elicit thoughtful and honest responses from participating students. [Author].
Jansen, E. (date unknown). Cross-cultural adaptation among women: How living internationally affects your life. [On-Line] Available: http://sistergoldenhair.com/uponarrival/research.html.
Surprisingly enough, many women who live in a foreign country experience difficulties with adapting due to a phenomenon known as culture shock. The following study sought to address this by looking at the very nature of culture and interpersonal communication, by reviewing research findings from around the world, and by highlighting current activities of international organizations and corporations. Most importantly is the first hand observations and accounts from a group of women in France who, during their experience of living in a foreign country, talked about it in-depth, providing us with an insightful glimpse as to the dynamics of this phenomenon. [Author].
Jesurun, E. (2001, May 29). Same sex – different cultures: Gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender issues abroad. Presentation at the annual NAFSA: Association of International Educators conference, Philadelphia, PA. Two handouts available online: http://www.indiana.edu/~overseas/lesbigay/advise/GLBT_Handouts.htm & http://www.indiana.edu/~overseas/lesbigay/advise/GLBTHandout2.htm.
Kertesz, M. (2001). Developing and managing study abroad programs. British Columbia Centre for International Education (BCCIE).
This handbook is designed for individuals at post-secondary institutions tasked with managing education abroad programs or an office responsible for developing and coordinating exchange programs and field study programs. The module provides an overview of the various types of education abroad programs and services, and outlines strategies for developing and improving programs. The publication includes information and resources to guide the development of education abroad programs as well as providing a collection of forms that can be customized for individual institutional needs. [BCCIE].
Khoury, P.S. (2000, Winter). Current developments and future directions in Middle Eastern studies. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 6, 117-126. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.frontiersjournal.com/back/six/volsix.html.
Koester, J. (date unknown). A profile of the US student abroad. A two volume report. New York: Council on International Educational Exchange (CIEE).
LaBrack, B., & Pusch, M. (2001, October). "Home sweet home" or shattered social contract? Considering the cultural contexts of reentry. Presentation at the conference of the Society for Intercultural Education, Training and Research (SIETAR), Minneapolis, MN.
Luqman, K. (2002). Race, gender and the African American women’s study abroad experience in Spain. Unpublished capstone paper, School for International Training.
Kifiy, R., & Nielsen, D. (2002, December/2003, January). International service learning: The importance of partnerships. Community College Journal, 39-41.
Over the past two decades, study abroad and service-learning opportunities have increased significantly on community college campuses across the U.S. Community college faculty, administrators, presidents and board members who are interested in supporting the development of service-learning programs in their local communities and exchange programs overseas can easily obtain information. A variety of sources includes academic publications, Web sites and professional conferences. Despite the wealth of resources available on the nuts and bolts of developing service learning and study abroad programs, there is comparatively little information available to help community college personnel effectively combine service learning with study abroad. [Authors].
Kulacki, G. (2000, Winter). Area studies and study abroad: The Chinese experience. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 6, 23-46. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.frontiersjournal.com/back/six/volsix.html.
Landau, J., & Chioni Moore, D. (2001, Fall). Towards reconciliation in the motherland: Race, class, nationality, gender, and the complexities of American student presence at the University of Ghana, Legon. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 7, 25-59. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.frontiersjournal.com/back/seven/volseven.html.
Over the past fifteen years the worldwide growth of U.S. study abroad locations, the increasing number of “heritage” destinations, and an increasing theoretical sophistication have troubled these general assumptions. The following paper, co-written by an American alumna of a U.S.-based study abroad program at the University of Ghana, Legon, and a U.S.-based American professor specializing in International and Black Atlantic Studies, will explore one particularly freighted instance of the end of such assumptions, by addressing the American student presence at the University of Ghana, Legon. Examination of the Legon case will, we hope, be valuable for all study abroad professionals, because the American student presence at Legon challenges all of the traditional assumptions noted just above. [Authors].
Law-Yone, W. (2001). AD travels: An education abroad. Study tours with the National Trust. Architectural Digest, 58 (7), 58-67.
Leask, B. (2001, Summer). Bridging the gap: Internationalizing university curricula. Journal of Studies on International Education, 5 (2).
This article is a case study of how one university is internationalizing all its courses so that all graduates will demonstrate an international perspective as professionals and citizens. This focus on courses and their teaching, learning, and assessment promotes international education, multiculturalism, and the recognition of intercultural issues relevant to professional practice. The first section deals with structural options and pathways for course design when internationalizing curricula and the defining characteristics of such options. The second and final section of the article outlines ways in which an internationalized curriculum broadens the scope of the subject to include international content and/or contact and sets up teaching and learning to assist in the development of cross-cultural communication skills. Internationalizing university curricula is a powerful and practical way of bridging the gap between rhetoric and practice to including and valuing the contribution of international students. [Author].
Leons, E. (2000, Winter/2001, Summer). Creating a safe environment for students with learning disabilities on study abroad programs. SAFETI On-Line Newsletter, 2 (1). [On-Line]. Available: http://www.usc.edu/dept/education/globaled/safeti/newsletter.html.
Levin, D.M. (2001). Language learners' sociocultural interaction in a study abroad context. (Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University). Dissertation Abstracts International, 62 (02), 498A.
This dissertation examines the language learning experiences of four female American undergraduate learners in an American university-sponsored study abroad program in the south of France. This ethnographic case study considers how the participants' perceptions of language, identity, and foreign language learning interacted with their year abroad experiences. In order to focus on how they functioned in this learning environment and how they felt their interactions affected their experiences, this study was informed by sociocultural theory and specifically by social identity theory as applied to foreign language learning. This study covered a span of approximately eighteen months, including pre- and post-study abroad periods at the American university and the academic year abroad. Data were collected by using field observation, individual interviews, informal discussions, videotaped interaction, photographs, and documents, including essays, personal journals, and e-mail messages. From a recursive analysis of data sources, the emergent themes highlight complexities of social and cultural dynamics and individual dimensions relating to the participants' experiences abroad. Despite the participants' strong assumption that the most efficient way to learn another language is in a study abroad program, their need to negotiate their identities with regard to educational expectations, peer-group influences, and personal connections led them to create and miss opportunities for language learning. With one exception, the participants positioned themselves as classroom language learners and by doing so, their possibilities to internalize, personalize, and remain open to unexpected cultural interaction were limited. Through their individual stories, this dissertation shows that the study abroad setting provided a holistic experience including formal language study and some informal language contact. However, the study abroad program, as an extension of the American university, strongly defined participants' experiences as a coming of age, primarily tied to personal growth and learning, rather than as an experience of natural or automatic language learning. [Author].
Levin, J.S. (2001). International education in Nepal: A qualitative study of efforts to educate across cultural contexts. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Colorado at Boulder). Dissertation Abstracts International, 62 (2), 653A.
This dissertation utilizes the field of international education in Nepal as a grounded context from which to explore the influence of cross-cultural interaction and culture change on education. Research for this dissertation was conducted as a part of applied efforts to improve the SANN/CUD-IC international education programs in Nepal during the 98/99 school year. Two broad questions resulted from this applied effort: (1) Why is it difficult to utilize a conventional American university classroom model to provide commensurate standards of formal academic education in study abroad programs in Nepal? (2) What are some of the actual patterns in participants' response to international education in Nepal? In resolving these questions, the following dissertation considers the meaning and function of education in increasingly complex international environments. The convergence of local and global forces, crystallized in the field of international education, functions in this analysis like a two-way mirror with each side alternately reflecting, highlighting, and obscuring the other. The resulting image not only addresses the basic dissertation questions, but it also provides a partial framework for thinking about education in emerging global contexts. This analysis describes how education in an environment characterized by increasing international relationships is distinct from its local counterparts. It is by understanding these distinctions that the practical difficulties involved in applying a conventional American university model are explained. It is also in light of these distinctions that international students' diverse and enthusiastic responses to international study make sense. [Author].
Levy, J.A. (2002). Host culture perception of a study abroad program and its impact on the community. Unpublished capstone paper, School for International Training
Liljenstolpe, E. (2002). The effect of study abroad at the Latin American Studies Program on conceptualization of humanity of other cultures in Caucasian university students. A summary of findings for program directors of the Council for Christian Colleges and Universities. Washington, D.C.: Council for Christian Colleges and Universities. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.cccu.org/resourcecenter/resID.2009,parentCatID.148/rc_detail.asp.
The purpose of the investigation was to examine how Caucasian students’ perceptions of peoples of the host cultures changed during a semester of study abroad. Students pass through five stages of conceptual development in thinking about other cultures. Stage one is characterized by seeing people from the host culture largely as stereotypes without reference to personal interaction. In stage two a person references personal experiences to give examples of generalized or stereotypical behavior. In Stage three a person has had enough experience to see that people in the host culture are as human as themselves. In Stage four the sojourner reflectively applies concepts to the immigrants and foreign or ethnic communities with whom they have had personal experience in their home culture. Stage five is an application of this newfound humanity to people of other cultures whom they have not encountered. A critical pedagogical framework was found to scaffold and support students’ transformative experiences. [Author].
Lloyd, D.T. (2000, Winter). African studies and study abroad. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 6, 99-116. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.frontiersjournal.com/back/six/volsix.html.
Ludden, D. (2000, Winter). Area studies in the age of globalization. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 6, 1-22. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.frontiersjournal.com/back/six/volsix.html.
Ludeman, R.B. (2001, March 28). Bridging nations: The important role of international education in the globalisation of higher education in the south. Paper presented at the Globalization Conference hosted by the Education Policy Unit, University of the Western Cape, Cape Town, South Africa. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.epu.uwc.ac.za/ConferenceProceedings/Papers/Ludeman.doc.
Lum, L. (2002, May 9). A renewed interest: The Sep. 11 terrorist attacks have piqued an interest among college students and faculty about other nations and cultures. Black Issues in Higher Education. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m0DXK/6_19/87015150/print.jhtml.
Macalester College. (2001, July 18). Alumni survey 2000: Class of 1995. St. Paul, MN: The Institutional Research Office, Macalester College. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.macalester.edu/~instrsch/alumsvy.htm.
The Alumni Survey was administered in the spring 2000 to Macalester College graduates from the class of 1995. This survey covered numerous aspects of student and academic life during the students’ studies at Macalester with brief data and comments on the effect study abroad has had on their academic and professional careers. One highlight of the survey is that academic courses and study abroad are the activities that contributed the most in preparation for post-baccalaureate activities and towards personal development. [Survey].
Maho, T. (2000, Winter/2001, Summer). Looking at health and safety issues from the perspective of a trial attorney. SAFETI On-Line Newsletter, 2 (1). [On-Line]. Available: http://www.usc.edu/dept/education/globaled/safeti/newsletter.html.
Manley, T. (2002). Study abroad pedagogy: A case study of the development and practice of the Pitzer College Fieldbook. (Doctoral dissertation, The Claremont Graduate University). Dissertation Abstracts International, 63, 878A.
Study abroad in recent decades has become more visible in the landscape of American undergraduate education as witnessed by the surging numbers of participants and programs that serve them. Research about the educational practice of study abroad, on the other hand, has tended to lag behind the development of the activity itself, creating a need for scholarship on student learning in that setting. The subject of this study is a pedagogical technique designed to foster and assess intercultural learning. Developed at Pitzer College and known as the Fieldbook, the technique employs an integrated and diverse series of writing assignments, which students complete during their semester abroad. The study uses a variety of methods of inquiry, including historical and content analyses, focus groups and surveys to place the Fieldbook in its historical and theoretical context and to effect a holistic description of its design and implementation. The Fieldbook is a good example of how an innovation can be realized through the collaborative, longitudinal energies of study abroad practitioners: faculty, staff and students. Created for use in a Pitzer College program in Italy, it was revised extensively over a decade, as it was adapted for programs in eight other countries. Feedback from students and staff provided the information critical to improve the Fieldbook, making it a malleable tool for facilitating intercultural learning and a central feature of the Pitzer study abroad model. Challenges addressed in the Fieldbook's development included, among other things, issues of privacy in student writing, the lack of clear criteria for assessing assignments, staff training, student complaints about workload, intercultural sensitivity, and student resistance to high stake (graded) writing. The study concludes with suggestions for strengthening the Fieldbook's design and practice and with recommendations for how research on applied pedagogy can enhance the quality of experientially oriented study abroad and other types of non-classroom learning. [Author].
Marcum, J.A. (2001, May 18). What direction for study abroad? Eliminate the roadblocks. Chronicle of Higher Education, The Chronicle Review, B7-B9. [On-Line]. Available: http://chronicle.com/free/v47/i36/36b00701.htm and http://www.umabroad.umn.edu/curriculum/resources/marcum.html.
McCabe, L.T. (2001, Summer). Globalization and internationalization: The impact on education abroad programs. Journal of Studies on International Education, 5 (2), 138-145.
This article asserts a need for educators to consider the mission and value of study abroad programs and their relation to the processes of globalization and internationalization. As educational systems increase their emphasis on the need for international education, it will be necessary to consider what types of study abroad opportunities are relevant to current world trends. This article attempts to provide a framework for understanding the distinction between the terms globalization and internationalization and their relevance to the future of international education and study abroad programs. U.S.-Africa Cooperation in Education at Northern Arizona University: Unexpected Lessons Athanase Gahungu A total of 114 African educators came to Northern Arizona University (NAU), in Flagstaff, from 1988 to 1992 to attend a 45-day Summer Institute sponsored by the United State Information Agency. Two former participants in the program, who came back to NAU as graduate students, interviewed campus personnel and students and members of the surrounding community to examine the impact of the 5-year experience. The program's year-by-year evaluations were analyzed in light of interview responses. It was shown that the program helped the academic and surrounding communities discover other facets of African education and life that media often misrepresent in the mainstream subconscious. Participating African educators were very appreciative of the innovative curriculum and instructional methods they learned and were mesmerized by minority inclusion policies on campus. However, interviewees and the African educators deplored the United States's lack of awareness and interest in cooperation with Africa. [Author].
McMeekin, A. (2001, October). Negotiation and interaction in the Japanese study abroad environment. Paper presented at the Pacific Second Language Research Forum, University of Hawai'i at Manoa.
This study of learners of Japanese studying abroad answers the following questions: 1) What kind of information (linguistic, social etc.) is directly or indirectly made available to the learner through negotiation in the classroom and the homestay setting? 2) What implications does this have toward second language acquisition? [Author].
McNamee, S.J., & Faulkner, G.L. (2001, Spring). The international exchange experience and the social construction meaning. Journal of Studies on International Education, 5 (1).
This article examines the notion of applying the social construction of meaning to the experience of an international faculty exchange. Specifically, the article analyzes challenges and changes in the three major sources that people draw on to provide meaning in life: (a) social relationships, (b) work and leisure activities, and (c) convictions to idea systems. It is argued that separation from one's home culture in an exchange produces discomfort and adjustment burdens resulting from the discrepancy between the new cultural setting and these three sources of meaning. Strategies are suggested for coping with sources of potential meaning uncertainty related to the exchange experience within the context of existing relationships, activities, and idea systems. [Authors].
Mello, N.A. (2000, Winter/2001, Summer). Risk management, safety issues and how WPI responds to the Interorganizational Task Force on Safety and Responsibility in Study Abroad guidelines. SAFETI On-Line Newsletter, 2 (1). [On-Line]. Available: http://www.usc.edu/dept/education/globaled/safeti/newsletter.html.
Middlebury College. (date unknown). Study abroad re-entry resources. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.middlebury.edu/~sap/re_entry/resources.html.
A recent survey by “Open Doors” showed that Hispanics make up approximately 5% of the student population that studies abroad each year. With the growing prevalence of the Spanish language in today’s world, this statistic is disappointing. One would expect Hispanics, with their bilingual and bicultural “head start,” to be at the forefront of the study abroad population. There are several reasons for this low number of Hispanic “trotamundos” (“globetrotters”): lack of funds, familial and academic responsibilities at home and lack of motivation. But the two that I will focus on are seldom acknowledged: general perceptions of Hispanics studying abroad and the preservation of ethnic identity. [Author].
Monalco, Inc. (2002, October 14). Survey of third party study abroad providers: Final report. Milwaukee: WI. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.secussa.nafsa.org/3rdparty12.doc
This survey, conducted by Monalco, Inc. during summer and fall of 2002, is the first attempt by a consortium of nine third party study abroad providers to collect statistics pertaining to their unique niche in the field of study abroad. This effort was initiated by the Data Collection Committee of SECUSSA in 1999.
The survey was designed to collect information similar to that collected annually for all U.S. Study Abroad in Open Doors: Report on International Educational Exchange. However, the survey design is intentionally more comprehensive than that of Open Doors in that it includes measures of elements of study abroad programs such as housing selection, program type, language prerequisites, staffing specifics on-site, financial aid availability, etc. Since 3rd party providers are not invited to submit data to Open Doors, this provides more detailed information for the field. Also, the data is more current than that of Open Doors since it captures the prior year’s data.
Due to the dearth of funding for study abroad research, the nine participating program providers sponsored the survey. The survey design was based upon repeated input from all study participants and others in the field, including the SECUSSA Data Collection Committee Members. Monalco, Inc., a research firm, improved the survey design, collected the data and compiled and analyzed the results.
The survey participants have access only to the aggregate data to assure objectivity in reporting and confidentiality. All survey participants are encouraged to share the survey results with their constituents. In addition, the SECUSSA Data Collection Committee will be provided the results for dissemination. Moreover, a proposal has been submitted to NAFSA for potential presentation of the results at the 2003 NAFSA Annual Conference.
The nine providers submitting information for this study are: AIFS, Arcadia, Brethren Colleges Abroad, Council On International Educational Exchange (CIEE), IES, Institute For Study Abroad, Butler University, International Studies Abroad, SIT Study Abroad, Syracuse University. [Monalco, Inc.].
Nance, M., & Hughes, L. (2001/2002, Winter). Understanding terrorism’s impact on study-abroad programs. SAFETI On-Line Newsletter, 2 (2). [On-Line]. Available: http://www.usc.edu/dept/education/globaled/safeti/newsletter.html.
Nasr, K., Berry, J., Taylor, G., Webster, W., Echempati, R., & Chandran, R. (2002). Global engineering education through study-abroad experiences: Assessment and lessons learned. Paper presented at the proceedings of the 2002 ASEE/SEFI/TUB Colloquium, Flint MI. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.asee.org/conferences/international/papers/taylor.pdf
This paper documents the development and implementation of a number of study-abroad programs for engineering students. The purpose of these programs is to provide students value-added technical and cultural experiences. The need for globally aware engineering students has never been greater than it is today. Technological developments stem from all parts of the world in a global economy that requires our students to be internationally educated. The interdependence of all parts of the world highlight the outcome that those students who have studied abroad will more likely be hired in and be more ready for a global marketplace. Study-abroad participation for the engineering student is a practical investment in the future and an excellent way to provide value-added technical and cultural expertise. Study-abroad programs promote understanding across technical programs and nations. Students live abroad for three months, interact with individuals from different cultures and are exposed to very different academic environments than those to which they are accustomed. Young people return from these experiences more confident, feeling a sense of growth, and have a broader technical understanding. This paper discusses the process of setting up study-abroad programs, students' advisement, equivalency and correspondence of courses, grading differences, programs assessment, and lessons learned. Universities and other schools wishing to establish similar programs would benefit from the recommendations and findings in this paper. [Authors].
Office of Policy and Evaluation, Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs, U.S. Department of State. (2002, May). Outcome assessment of the U.S. Fulbright Scholar Program (SRI International Project No. P10372). Menlo Park, CA: C.P. Ailes & S.H. Russell. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.sri.com/policy/csted/reports/international/.
SRI International conducted a two-year outcome assessment of the U.S. Scholar component of the Fulbright Educational Exchange Program, the U.S. government’s flagship international educational exchange program. SRI surveyed a stratified random sample of 1,004 U.S. Fulbright Scholar alumni whose grants began between 1976 and 1999. Eighty percent of the Scholar alumni – 801 people – completed a questionairre about the impact the Fulbright program had on individuals and institutions both in the U.S. and in the Scholar’s host countries. SRI found strong evidence that the program is achieving its mandate of promoting mutual understanding and cooperation between the U.S. and other nations, but also on their colleagues, students, friends and families. [SRI International].
Oguri, M., & Gudykunst, W.B. (2002, September). The influence of self construals and communication styles on sojourners’ psychological and sociocultural adjustment. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 26 (5), 577-593.
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of self construals and communication styles on psychological and sociocultural adjustment based on Ward et al.'s psychological and sociocultural adjustment model. It was hypothesized that a close fit between sojourners' self construals and the self construal that predominates in the host culture predicts sojourners' psychological adjustment. Similarly, it was hypothesized that a close fit between sojourners' and host nationals' communication styles predicts sojourners' sociocultural adjustment. The independent self construal, the prototypical self construal in the host culture, predicted psychological adjustment. The interdependent self construal was not related to psychological adjustment. Use of direct communication and positive perceptions of silence, prototypical communication styles in the host culture, were related to sociocultural adjustment and consistent with expectations. In addition, sensitivity to others' behavior predicted sociocultural adjustment. [Authors].
Olsen, J.K., & Peterson, N. (2001, July 23). International educational exchange in the information age. iMP Magazine. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.cisp.org/imp/july_2001/07_01olsen.htm.
Olson, C.L., & Kroeger, K.R. (2001, Summer). Global competency and intercultural sensitivity. Journal of Studies on International Education, 5 (2).
How do educators enhance their global competencies and intercultural communication skills so they can better educate students in our increasingly diverse societies? In spring 2000, the authors conducted a survey of 52 New Jersey City University faculty and staff to assess the relationships between their international experience, global competencies, and levels of intercultural sensitivity. The survey drew on Milton Bennett's Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity and definitions of global competency from Wilson, Stohl, Singer, and Hanvey. The authors of this article found that both second-language proficiency and substantive experience abroad increase the likelihood that an educator will be more advanced on the Bennett Intercultural Sensitivity Scale. This survey provides directional information about the relationship between second-language acquisition, experience abroad, and ethnorelativism. The findings suggest that we need global, intercultural, and professional development for faculty and staff that is ongoing, substantial, and inclusive of work in another language and culture. [Authors].
O’Neill, M. (2001/2002, Winter). Peace Corps’ approach to safety and security. SAFETI On-Line Newsletter, 2 (2). [On-Line]. Available: http://www.usc.edu/dept/education/globaled/safeti/newsletter.html.
Orozco, R. (2000, Winter/2001, Summer). A student’s response to injury and medical evacuation from abroad to the US. SAFETI On-Line Newsletter, 2 (1). [On-Line]. Available: http://www.usc.edu/dept/education/globaled/safeti/newsletter.html.
Park, Y.J. (2000/2001). An Asian American outside: Crossing color lines in the United States and Africa. Across the Colorline. 2001Amerasia Journal, 26 (23), 99-117.
Park compares her experiences as a Korean American in Los Angeles, and working and living in South Africa and Kenya with her Black American spouse. To a large degree, racial identifications are based on political and class categories. [KP].
Pearson, J. (2001). The role of the institutional setting and its impact on education abroad policy and programs. In M. Tillman (Ed.), Study abroad: A 21st century perspective, volume II, the changing landscape (pp. 17-19). Stamford, CT: American Institute for Foreign Study Foundation. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.aifs.com/aifsfoundation/21century.htm.
Petras, J. (2000, Winter). Overseas education: Dispelling official myths in Latin America. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 6, 73-82. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.frontiersjournal.com/back/six/volsix.html.
Phelps, J. (2002, Fall). Rewarding opportunities for GLBT students going to Eastern Europe: A look at Poland, the Czech Republic and Hungary. Rainbow SIGnals, 9 (1). [On-Line]. Available: http://www.indiana.edu/~overseas/lesbigay/int.htm.
Poehling, A. (2001). Hitting the ground running: The impact of a pre-departure class on study abroad participants. In M. Tillman (Ed.), Study abroad: A 21st century perspective, volume II, the changing landscape (pp. 20-21). Stamford, CT: American Institute for Foreign Study Foundation. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.aifs.com/aifsfoundation/21century.htm.
Popp, H. (2001, January). Travel educates – Cliches persist. German Research: Magazine of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG).
Porterfield, T.A. (2002). Making meaning of student sojourner spirituality post study abroad. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Northern Colorado). Dissertation Abstracts International, 63, 2162A.
There has been relatively little research conducted on the spiritual development of college students, and particularly, in relationship to study abroad experiences. The purpose of this study was to explore the essence of spirituality after the student sojourn abroad experience. The study utilizes the phenomenological and constructivist paradigms to capture the essence of the lived experiences of students after their return from a sojourn abroad. The study allowed the meaning of the experiences to be constructed and understood as the study emerged. Purposeful sampling was utilized to select five participants who felt that they were impacted spiritually through the study abroad experience. The researcher served as the instrument for this study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to gain an understanding of the phenomenon being explored. Additionally, an artifact analysis of photographs and scrapbooks was utilized to aid in highlighting students' experiences. Measures were taken to insure trustworthiness of the data was maintained. In alignment with the phenomenological method, data analysis included epoche, horizontalization, clusters of meanings, imaginative variation, and textual and structural descriptions. The textural themes that emerged from the study are: influence and history of family, spiritual practices, mentor relationships, impact of country visited, spiritual experiences abroad, relationships with others abroad, personal significance of religion/spirituality, greater sense of self, struggle upon returning to the United States, increased desire for travel and adventure, and influence of education. The structural themes that highlight the essence of the phenomenon of spirituality include: foundation of religion or spirituality, student sojourner reflection on the experience of study abroad, cognitive dissonance upon returning to the United States, and experiences adversity while abroad. The study concludes with implications for future research and recommendations for practice. [Author].
Richard, M.J. (2001, Fall). Novices in the field: Filling in the meaning continuum. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 7, 95-119. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.frontiersjournal.com/back/seven/volseven.html.
Riley, L.A. (2002, Spring). Coming home as strangers: Dialectical transformation of self-identity in the study abroad experience. Unpublished bachelor’s honors thesis, Bridgewater College, Virginia. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.bridgewater.edu/~lar001/thesis.
The experience of studying abroad is a dynamic opportunity for young adults to explore a new world. Students leave home to enter a new land, seemingly fantastic, yet strangely real. They essentially remove themselves from everything that is known, common, and comfortable to envelop their whole being in an alternate culture with the host group. The student enters a group as an outsider, attempting to understand the insiders’ educational system and culture. Yet the student learns more than simply about a different cultural group. The individual emerges with an enhanced sense of personal identity transformation. Georg Simmel’s concept of the “stranger” may be appropriate for understanding this transformation in the study abroad participant. [Author].
Ritchey, D. (2001, Winter). Lessons from London. International Educator, 10 (1), 5-6.
The author, who as a faculty member, leads a regular two-week study trips abroad and shares some of the lessons he’s learned from these experiences for other faculty trip leaders. [DJC].
Rhodes, G. (2002, Fall). Study abroad – Now more than ever: Making the case for study abroad without research confirming study-abroad outcomes. IIENetworker, 40-42.
Ricks, T., Krebs, K., & Monahan, M. (2000, Winter). Area studies and study abroad in the 21st century. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 6, xi-xix. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.frontiersjournal.com/back/six/volsix.html.
Rodríguez, K. (2001, September). Enlarging and emancipating the study abroad experience: A view from Venezuela. Paper delivered at the 2001 meeting of the Latin American Studies Association, Washington, D.C.
Study abroad purports to bring the world closer together by creating opportunities for students to interact with cultural Others, but could easily be seen as a neocolonial project in Third World countries. In this paper, I draw on my work directing a study abroad program in Venezuela to complicate the study abroad setting in Latin America, to question its taken-for-granted nature and to suggest ways to raise critical considerations about its practice, curriculum, and the encounters it facilitates. The paper concludes that such issues must be voiced, not to disable our practice, but rather, to enable study abroad in Latin America to meet its potential as a transformative educational experience. [Author].
Rollins McLaughlin, T. (2001, May). Perspectives on learning Spanish as a heritage language in Mexico: Four Chicana case studies. Unpublished Master’s thesis, Universidad de las Américas-Puebla, Cholula, Puebla, México. [On-Line]. Available: http://mailweb.udlap.mx/~tesis/mla/mclaughlin_tr/.
The study is composed of a set of case studies of Chicana Spanish heritage language learners who decided to study abroad in Mexico for one term of the undergraduate college career. The study took place over the course of 10 weeks at the Universidad de las Américas-Puebla in Mexico. The Chicanas’, Mexican peers’ and professors’ perspectives toward the Chicanas’ Spanish language learning in Mexico are the focus of the study, along with a description of the students’ Spanish language features, and awareness of their Spanish skills and ethnic identity. [Author].
Roochnik, D. (2001, May 18). What direction for study abroad? First, look homeward. The Chronicle of Higher Education, B9-B10. [On-Line]. Available: http://chronicle.com/free/v47/i36/36b00901.htm.
Roose, D. (2001). White teachers’ learning about diversity and “otherness”: The effects of undergraduate international education internships on subsequent teaching practices. Equity & Excellence in Education, 34 (1), 43-49.
Rubin, D.L., & Sutton, R. (2001, Spring). SECUSSA/IIE electronic sampling results: Survey #2: Assessing student learning outcomes from study abroad. International Educator, 10 (2), 30-31. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.secussa.nafsa.org/samplingresults2.html.
Rust, V.D. (2002, October). Research regarding outcomes of effects of foreign study on participating students, Working document in the series: CIDE study abroad. CIDE Contributions No. 1. Center for International & Development Education and UCLA Graduate School of Education & Information Studies, Los Angeles, California. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.gseis.ucla.edu/cide/cide_report.php?cat=5&id=6.
This project is intended to survey the research regarding outcomes of effects of foreign study on participating students. The project has a number of components: survey of major study abroad centers about ongoing research projects on the effects of study abroad; review of all existing English language research documents on study abroad; establish a depository of research documents; establish of a website to publicize and coordinate the dissemination of materials; make available all research documents; and create a series of review studies of research on issues related to foreign study. This project represents the first in a series of efforts to understand foreign study. Subsequent efforts include the incorporation of research on foreign study in the European Union, East Asian countries, and the developing world. [Author].
SAFETI. (2001). SAFETI Adaptation of Peace Corps Resources. The SAFETI (Safety Abroad First - Educational Travel Information) Clearinghouse Project, USC Center for Global Education. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.usc.edu/dept/education/globaled/peacecorps/crisis_h.html.
Adapted from the Crisis Management Handbook: A Guide for Overseas Staff, Peace Corps Volunteer Safety Council. [SAFETI].
Sanders, K.A., & Morgan, M. (2001). Study abroad programs: A mirror for adult learning and perspective transformation. Paper presented at the Adult Education Research Conference (AERC), Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.edst.educ.ubc.ca/aerc/2001/2001sanders.htm.
This pilot study qualitatively sought to examine how study abroad programs in Third-World countries provide a means of fostering perspective transformation in adult learners. A diverse group of students and faculty from four cooperating universities participated in a six-week study abroad program in Africa. It examined the concepts of perspective transformation, transformative learning, and critical reflection. [Authors].
Sanderson, J. (2002, December). Somewhere over the rainbow: A pragmatic approach to issues of gay youth and sexual identity in study abroad. (Unpublished master’s thesis, University of Maryland Baltimore County, 2002). Masters Abstracts International, 40 (6) 1351.
As more and more US college students go abroad as part of their studies, it is becoming necessary to look at the experiences of minority students to see if existing procedures and programs need to be changed in any way. I examine different models of sexual identity formation and culture shock to complement data obtained through a series of questionnaires targeting study abroad participants, study abroad advisors and foreign nationals. In addition to examining the theories behind these processes, I also base my conclusions and recommendations on intercultural misunderstandings and how they can be explained by the study of pragmatics. Gay-related issues are seldom discussed in the context of intercultural relations, and even less so when young adults are concerned. While those advisors questioned believe that the subject is sufficiently covered in their pre-departure orientations, their students do not recall this; even if it was covered, it was not done in such a way that the students took notice. My greatest recommendation, therefore, is to present a supportive image of the study abroad office and to put a maximum of information at the students' disposal, such that they do not have to directly ask for it. [Author].
Santoro Bellini, M.A. (2002, Summer). Culture shock: Psychological effects of international study. Quarterly Advisor, A publication of HTH Worldwide, 6-7
Sellew, K. (2001, Summer). Exchanges with Syria. International Educator, 10 (3), 22-26.
Seo, W., Teng, C, DeMicco, F. J., Wortman, T. I., & Martin, L. (2001). The international hospitality study abroad program: A strategy leads to future career success. Unpublished manuscript.
Siaya, L., Porcelli, M., & Green, M. (2002, September). One year later: Attitudes about international education since September 11, Public opinion poll. Washington, D.C.: American Council on Education, Center for Institutional and International Initiatives. [On-Line]. Available:
This new report examines the public's attitudes toward international education since September 11, 2001. Comparing results from a survey conducted before September 11 with three polls conducted after, the report finds generally high support for international education and foreign language training, but also reveals some areas in which the public has concerns and reservations. [ACE].
Sideli, K. (2001, Spring). SECUSSA/IIE electronic sampling results: Survey #2: Outcomes assessment and study abroad programs: Commentary on the results of a SECUSSA/IIE electronic sampling. International Educator, 10 (2), 30. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.secussa.nafsa.org/samplingresults2.html.
Sideli, K. (2002, Winter). Security issues and data collection in education abroad. International Educator, 41-42. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.secussa.nafsa.org/datacollection.html.
Sideli, K., & Koh, H-K. (2002, Fall). Everyone has to count when it comes to security. IIENetworker, 44-46.
Smiles, R. (2001, August 2). A world-class education: Rewards abound for those who dare to teach or study abroad. Black Issues in Higher Education. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m0DXK/12_18/77398870/print.jhtml.
This journal cover story contains perspectives of Black faculty and administrators, a number of whom are from HBCUs, and also has an interesting article by a returned student of color who studied abroad. This journal be ordered directly from the publisher at (703) 385-2981 in Fairfax, Virginia. [Author/Journal].
Storti, C. (2001). The art of coming home. (2nd Ed.). Manassas Park, VA: Impact Publications.
You may be in for a shock if you expect things to be the same as when you left home! Indeed, you’ll quickly discover both you and home have changed. Examines reentry issues for four specific groups: high school exchange students, international volunteers, military personnel and their families, and missionaries and their children. Integrates the process of returning home into the overseas experience. Offers solid advice everyone needs to reduce the stress of making the transition home. [Publisher].
Storti, C. (2001). The art of crossing cultures. (2nd Ed.). Manassas Park, VA: Impact Publications.
Adjusting to a new culture and getting along with the local people are two common challenges for nearly everyone who lives and works abroad. This book shows what it takes to encounter a new culture and succeed. Filled with examples of cross-cultural misunderstandings and tools for turning cultural confrontation into cultural adaptation. [Publisher].
Sumka, S. (2001, September/October). Host family experience: What is the impact? What does it mean? Transitions Abroad, 25 (2), 75-76.
Sussman, N.M. (2002, August). Testing the cultural identity model of the cultural transition cycle: Sojourners return home. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 26 (4), 391-408.
A new theoretical model, which explores the relationship between cultural identity and repatriation experience, was tested among 113 American teachers who sojourned to Japan. Results indicated, unexpectedly, that overseas adaptation and repatriation experiences are not directly associated. Rather, home culture identity strength inversely predicted repatriation distress with repatriates experiencing high distress reporting weak cultural identity. Preliminary findings also indicated that repatriation experience is related to shifts in cultural identity. As predicted by the Cultural Identity Model, ratings of increased estrangement from American culture (subtractive) or feeling "more" Japanese (additive) following a sojourn are correlated with the high repatriation distress. Further, the more the global identity shift, the higher the life satisfaction. An innovative methodology was utilized in this study through the use of internet for participant recruitment and data collection. [Author].
Teikyo University Holland. (date unknown). The administrator's guide to study abroad programs: A step-by-step handbook to help you establish or expand your study abroad program. [On-Line]. Available:
This guide is designed to help you establish, improve, or expand your study abroad programs. It covers a lot of material, and it is a fairly long document. [TUH].
The Conservation Company. (2001). Environmental scan of international youth exchange programs. Unpublished document. CGP, The Japan Foundation Center for Global Partnership. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.cgp.org/pdf/EnvironmentalScan.pdf.
Tillman, M. (Ed.). (2001). Study abroad: A 21st century perspective, volume II, the changing landscape. Stamford, CT: American Institute for Foreign Study Foundation. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.aifs.com/aifsfoundation/21century.htm.
Tonkin, H. (2001). Study, service and the self-transformed. In M. Tillman (Ed.), Study abroad: A 21st century perspective, volume II, the changing landscape (pp. 22-25). Stamford, CT: American Institute for Foreign Study Foundation. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.aifs.com/aifsfoundation/21century.htm.
Transition Dynamics. (2001, December). International expatriate and repatriate community bibliography. Transition Dynamics. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.transition-dynamics.com/bibs.html.
Transition Dynamics is a consultancy serving the international expatriate and repatriate community. This bibliography provides several direct links to the resources themselves or to informational pages on how to obtain these resources.
Trudeau-Reeves, F. (2002, February). Study abroad: A calculated Risk. Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, University Affairs, 16-19. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.ryerson.ca/gointernational/oaie_cbie2002/pdf/studyabroad.pdf.
Truong, D.N. (2002). Successes, challenges and difficulties experienced by American students while on Fulbright scholarships in China and Vietnam. (Doctoral dissertation, Virginia Commonwealth University). Dissertation Abstracts International, 63 (5), 1747A.
Many students both undergraduate and graduate look for scholarships and grants to be able to travel and study abroad. Those who wish to travel and conduct their graduate research have spent months and years gathering information on their respective choice of countries, learning the appropriate language, and seeking a scholarship grant to support their endeavor overseas. In the United States, college students who wish to receive one of the prestigious Fulbright grants as a financial support while they study, teach or research abroad compete against other students nationwide. The selection process is rigorous, and those who wish to be selected must submit their record of personal attributes and study, teaching or research proposals. Even though the selection process is rigorous, the quality of the selectees does not guarantee success. They may encounter daunting challenges once they enter the overseas environment and in some cases completion of their planned period abroad may prove problematic. What can be done to prepare the students for the challenges and/or difficulties so the rates of success among Fulbright researchers are increased? The purpose of this study was to uncover and analyze the successes, challenges and difficulties of Fulbright students during their time in China and Vietnam and afterward. Many Fulbright students had a limited time to complete their research. This research focused on the celebration of successes as well as identification of strategies to overcome the challenges and difficulties facing students doing such research. A qualitative method design and data analysis was used, employing questionnaires and interviews. This study took the form of survey case study research design. The sample for this study encompassed ten American Fulbright students drawn from the 1998 & 1999, 1999 & 2000 and 2000 & 2001 United States Student Grantees Classes. From the respondents' suggestions above, it is hoped that future Fulbright students will be prepared for all the experiences while conducting research in China or Vietnam. [Author].
Turlington, B., Collins, N.F., & Porcelli, M. (2002). Where credit is due: Approaches to course and credit recognition across borders in U.S. higher education institutions. Washington, D.C.: American Council on Education. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.acenet.edu/bookstore/pdf/2003_where_credit_due.pdf
Recent ACE research has revealed that difficulty in obtaining credit recognition for international study and overseas internships often discourages students from pursuing higher education exchange. This guide explores how specific institutions have overcome this hurdle. [ACE].
Udin, V., & Davis, N. (2001, November). Organizational implications of web-enhanced study abroad programs. Invited paper for the International Educational Technology Conference and Fair 2001, Sakarya University, Turkey. [On-Line]. Available: http://web2.iastate.edu/~ilet/public_files/publications.html.
This paper provides a view of how the marriage of information technology and international education may be achieved, as proposed by Philson (1998). However, it suggests that there is more to do than to collaborate with colleagues and provide increased access to resources. In addition, we need to work to create learning communities that span cultures, languages and continents. We recognize the dangers of globalization and a bland common universality. Our collaborative development through the ILET (International Leadership for Educational Technology) project aims to promote understanding and respect for multicultural perspectives in learning and teaching in higher education and in the preparation of teachers generally. In doing so we aim to support education for democracy and to assist in increasing the conditions for world peace. [Authors].
Ulvin, A. (2002, May 8). I knew you were American because you were bigger: In our bodies. Unpublished manuscript posted on SECUSS-L, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT. [On-Line].
A student recounts on her study abroad experience in France and the differences in health between the U.S. and France with particular attention paid to eating disorders. [DJC].
Vahlbusch, J. (2003, Winter). Experiential Learning in the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire's Program in Wittenberg, Germany. ADFL Bulletin, 34 (2).
Van de Water, J. (2001). Partner or perish – Study abroad in the 21st century. In M. Tillman (Ed.), Study abroad: A 21st century perspective, volume II, the changing landscape (pp. 26-27). Stamford, CT: American Institute for Foreign Study Foundation. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.aifs.com/aifsfoundation/21century.htm.
Vande Berg, M. (2001, Spring). SECUSSA/IIE electronic sampling results: Survey #2: The assessment of learning outcomes in study abroad. International Educator, 10 (2), 31. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.secussa.nafsa.org/samplingresults2.html.
Verweijen, R. (2001). Internships as parts of study abroad programs: Potentials and pitfalls. Unpublished capstone paper, School for International Training.
Viale, J.J. (2001). Defamation law and the study abroad professional. Unpublished capstone paper, School for International Training.
Vincenti, V.B. (2001, Spring). Exploration of the relationship between international experiences and the interdisciplinary work of university faculty. Journal of Studies on International Education, 5 (1), 42-63.
This article reviews the published literature to obtain a better understanding about how international and, more generally, intercultural experiences might facilitate the development of interdisciplinary faculty work in higher education. More specifically, it examines characteristics of interdisciplinary individuals, benefits of international/intercultural experiences to travelers, the qualities needed for intercultural effectiveness, university disciplines as cultures, and how the relationship between international/intercultural experience is similar to interdisciplinary experience and competence. Finally, it addresses questions for future research. [Author].
Weeks, K.M. (2002). Managing liability and overseas programs. Nashville, TN: College Legal Information, Inc.
This series of essays is designed to educate and inform overseas study administrators, supervisors, counselors, and staff about the legal implications of decisions they make. Knowing the law and adopting preventive measures is the best way to cope with the law, prevent legal challenges, and reduce exposure.
Overseas program administrators often make or participate in decisions that can lead to litigation. For example, administrators who work with study abroad students develop working relationships with overseas and foreign institutions; counsel and advise students and parents; apply rules of conduct and enforce disciplinary standards; employ risk reducing strategies by using releases and waivers; and may be called upon to interface with the media in the unfortunate event of a crisis overseas. In sum, administrators significantly affect the effectiveness and exposure of the overseas study program.
Every year more college students participate in study abroad programs and in more challenging environments. Accordingly, overseas program administrators encounter various responsibilities involving the safety and well being of participants, the need to prevent exposure of the institution to liability, and to monitor all aspects of the program and campus and overseas personnel.
This manual on Managing Liability focuses on: The Expanding Scope of International Programs; Organizational Relationships and Legal Exposure; Students and Off-Campus Misconduct; Extraterritorial Application of Federal Statutes; Sources of Liability; Orientation and Program Assessment; Risk Reducing Strategies; Duty of Advisors; Crisis Management and Media Relations; and, Releases and Participation Agreements. [CLI, Inc.].
Weting, P.M. (2002, May). Impacts on participants of an island study abroad program in London, England. Unpublished Capstone paper, School for International Training.
This study presents results from a survey involving students who participated in an island study abroad program in London, England. Students were invited via email to complete an online survey, which asked students questions regarding interpersonal and intrapersonal development and how their experience abroad had an impact on those areas. Further questions asked students to determine what they felt most attributed the change. Additionally, they answered various background questions so the surveys that were analyzed all met certain criteria. Students must have completed an island study abroad program in London that lasted no longer than one semester in length.
Data analysis revealed that students do make interpersonal and intrapersonal gains by having studied in London on an island program. There were greater gains (more than 65%) in the following areas: awareness of intradependence, becoming more sociable with peers, being more sociable in groups, making friends more easily, better listening, extrovert-ness, and introvert-ness. Self-esteem, self-confidence, independence and understanding of themselves all showed high growth – more than 90%. Students abroad for a semester or quarter made larger gains than those abroad for a summer, with very few exceptions. Most frequently, personal change was attributed to the challenges a student overcame while on their study abroad program.
Analysis of the survey and relevant documents were integrated to reach conclusions regarding various impacts the island study abroad program experience had on students’ interpersonal and intrapersonal development. [Author].
Wilkinson, S. (2001). Beyond the classroom boundaries: The changing nature of study abroad. In R.Z. Levine (Ed.), Beyond the boundaries: Changing contexts in language learning (pp. 81-105). Reports of the Northeast Conference on the Teaching of Foreign Languages. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Wilkinson, S. (2002, October 26). What if they don’t gain? Paper presented at the Conference on Language Gain in the Study Abroad Environment, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI.
Even though statistical research confirms our intuition that most students make significant linguistic strides while abroad, ethnographic studies reveal that such gains are not a given for every overseas participant. Through an examination of data from a variety of descriptive studies, this presentation explores the complexities surrounding such failure (or perceived failure) to make progress. Within the framework of Giles and Byrne's (1982) speech accommodation theory and Bennett's (1986) intercultural sensitivity model, these case-study findings suggest that participants may eschew opportunities for language use because the perceived costs to their self-identity and emotional well-being outweigh the potential benefits of linguistic gain. Such avoidance may also precipitate from an individual's stage of cross-cultural adjustment. These findings raise issues for consideration in the design of overseas programs and the recruitment of participants. [Author].
Winston, R.P. (2001, Fall). Discipline and interdiscipline: Approaches to study abroad. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 7, 61-93. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.frontiersjournal.com/back/seven/volseven.html.
Woolf, M. (2001, Fall). Not waving but drowning: Arguments against immersion in study abroad. International Educator, 10 (4), 29-34.
Wortman, T. (2001, November). Study abroad: Increasing openness to diversity. Paper presented at the Association for the Study of Higher Education (ASHE) International Forum, Richmond, Virginia.
Young, R.Y. (2001, December 4). Assessing the impact areas of an international study tour for teachers. Unpublished master’s thesis, unknown institution. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.fivecolleges.edu/partnership/sea/masterthesis.pdf
The purpose of this paper is to examine some of the relevant theories and research on global and multicultural education, as well as international study programs. More importantly, it will analyze data collected from the ten teachers who participated in the professional development study tour described…and in depth in the “Case Study” section. In documenting the study tour’s impact, this paper seeks to answer the question: in what areas has the 2001 Study Tour of Southeast Asia impacted teacher understanding and sensitivity towards the cultures and issues facing Southeast Asia and the diaspora? [Author].
Zachrisson, C.U. (2001). New study abroad destinations: Trends and emerging opportunities. In M. Tillman (Ed.), Study abroad: A 21st century perspective, volume II, the changing landscape (pp. 28-30). Stamford, CT: American Institute for Foreign Study Foundation. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.aifs.com/aifsfoundation/21century.htm.
Zambito, J., (2002). Students of color in study abroad programs. Colorado State University Journal of Student Affairs, 11, 1-5. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/DSA/SAHE/JOURNAL/2002/zambito.htm.
Studying abroad is oftentimes considered a life-changing experience for young men and women, one that adds depth and quality to their lives and future careers. This article will discuss a case study examining the positive impact study abroad has on student participants, as well as explore the under-representation of students of color in study abroad programs. To help change perceptions, which discourage students of color from study, abroad, higher education professionals should concentrate their efforts on marketing study abroad opportunities toward this student population. [Author].
Education Abroad/International Education Journals
A World Awaits You (AWAY). An award-winning journal, produced by the National Clearinghouse on Disability and Exchange. AWAY provides a place for exchange participants with disabilities, exchange providers and disability rights advocates to share their international exchange success stories with others. To obtain a free copy of AWAY or to request guidelines for submitting your story, please send your mailing address to the address below, or e-mail email@example.com. [Journal]
ADFL Bulletin. The ADFL Bulletin is a refereed journal published three times a year by the Association of Departments of Foreign Languages, a subsidiary of the Modern Language Association. The ADFL Bulletin prints essays dealing with professional, pedagogical, curricular, and departmental matters. [ADFL]. This Bulletin often publishes articles relating to foreign language acquisition during study abroad as well as on other international education related issues. http://www.adfl.org/bulletin/index.htm.
Black Issues in Higher Education. Cox and Matthews teamed up to launch Black Issues In Higher Education as a small newsletter in the basement of Cox's home in March 1984. Now headquartered in Fairfax, Virginia and averaging 96 pages per edition, Black Issues is the nation's only news magazine dedicated exclusively to minority issues in higher education. Published bi-weekly, Black Issues brings in-depth and up-to-date coverage of the diverse education community, including African Americans, Native Americans, Asian Americans and Hispanic Americans, as well as Americans with disabilities and women to every college and university in the United States. Among Black Issues' 200,000 readers are university presidents, deans, professors, student service professionals, as well as students, librarians, personnel and affirmative action officers. Readers also include professionals at associations, corporations, military installations and private sector groups concerned with minority participation in higher education. Black Issues publishes a number of special reports annually covering topics such as Recruitment and Retention, Health Sciences Education, Careers in Higher Education, Arthur Ashe Jr. Sports Scholars Awards, Top 100 Degree Producers, Graduate and Professional Education, as well as its annual Academic Kickoff edition. [Journal]. Black Issues in Higher Education has published several articles on study abroad. You can learn more about the journal from the following link: http://www.blackissues.com
Comparative Education Review (CER) investigates education throughout the world and the social, economic, and political forces that shape it. Founded in 1957 to advance knowledge and teaching in comparative education studies, the Review has since established itself as the most reliable source for the analysis of the place of education in countries other than the United States. Frequency: quarterly. [Journal] http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/CER/
Subscription also provides membership to the Comparative and International Education Society (CIES) http://www.cies.ws
Current Issues in Comparative Education (CICE) is an international on-line journal based at Teachers College, Columbia University that publishes scholarly work from a variety of academic disciplines. CICE seeks clear and significant contributions that further debate on educational policies and comparative studies. [Journal] http://www.tc.columbia.edu/CICE/
Foreign Language Annuals. As the official journal of the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages, Foreign Language Annals is dedicated to the advancement of foreign language teaching and learning. The journal seeks to serve the professional interests of classroom instructors, researchers, and administrators concerned with the teaching of foreign languages at all levels of instruction. Foreign Language Annals is a refereed journal published bimonthly (six issues per year). Preference is given to articles that report educational research or experimentation, that describe innovative and successful practice and methods, and/or that are relevant to the concerns and issues of the profession. Special articles are occasionally commissioned but manuscripts on a wide variety of topics are welcomed. [Journal]. http://www.actfl.org/.
Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad. The purpose of Frontiers is to publish thought-provoking research articles, insightful essays, and concise book reviews that may provide the profession of study abroad an intellectual charge, document some of the best thinking and innovative programming in the field, create an additional forum for dialogue among colleagues in international education, and ultimately enrich our perspectives and
bring greater meaning to our work.
Frontiers aspires to publish excellent writing that reflects deeply on the critical issues and concerns of study abroad. In particular, this journal is interested in the intellectual development of students in an international and intercultural context. Study abroad offers great promise both to individual students and to institutions committed to international education.
Frontiers is an interdisciplinary journal. It publishes manuscripts from a wide range of disciplines and encourages approaches to topics that use multiple and mutually supporting forms of analysis. Research on the issue of student learning abroad, for example, might make use of research in anthropology, linguistics, psychology, philosophy, and education. Frontiers encourages researchers in particular fields of study to submit manuscripts that relate well to
study abroad. Examples of such articles might include: an analysis of the meaning of study abroad for a particular historical figure; an examination of study abroad themes as they appear in a literary work; a business case study analysis of an abroad program; or a research article on the psychological processes that shape study abroad experiences.
Frontiers publishes one volume per year, alternating between a general, ecletic one and a thematic one that covers a specific topic in-depth. Each volume typically contains research articles, an essay, book reviews, and an update of a particular theme or topic in a field. [Journal] http://www.frontiersjournal.com/
- Web version of past articles may be found at http://www.frontiersjournal.com/back/back.htm
In Focus. A graduate student, refereed online journal of the Institute of International Development in collaboration with the College of Education at Florida International University that offers a forum for graduate students to publish research papers, essays and book reviews concerned with the themes of international and intercultural education. Graduate students make up the editorial board of the journal and are overseen by a distinguished faculty and practitioner advisory board. In Focus published its preview issue in the summer of 2002. [Journal] http://www.escotet.org/infocus/
International Educator. NAFSA: Association of International Educators quarterly journal is a vital resource for ideas about the theory and practice of international education. [Journal] http://www.nafsa.org/content/ProfessionalandEducationalResources/Publications/IE/IeHome.htm
International Review. The Phi Beta Delta International Review, published annually, is a multi-disciplinary journal. The editors welcome contributions from all academic disciplines. Manuscripts submitted for review should have an applied focus. The information detailed in a particular study should be of the sort that may be applied toward the development and enhancement of the "international experience" as it applies to education. The editors encourage the submission of manuscripts that range over such concerns as: (1) initiatives and impacts in international educational exchange; (2) international program development at colleges and universities; (3) internationalizing of curricula: policies, programs, practices, impacts; (4) international business education; (5) facilitators of international exchanges; (6) legal issues in the development of international programming; (7) comparative education issues; (8) curriculum development in Area Studies. [Journal] http://www.phibetadelta.org/intrev.htm
Journal of Research in International Education is a new (2002), international, peer-reviewed journal in international education published in collaboration with the International Baccalaureate Organization (IBO) and its partner schools, examiners and higher education institutions throughout the world.
International education is distinct from development education and also from comparative education. The journal will be designed to promote the relationship between theory and practice, and will be of the highest intellectual and academic quality for those undertaking rigorous and systematic enquiry.
The Journal of Research in International Education will be of interest to researchers and practitioners in areas such as intercultural studies, multicultural education, curriculum studies, assessment and evaluation, professional development, management and organization, school improvement and school effectiveness, philosophy, psychology, politics and teaching methods. The wider market will include researchers in institutions of higher education; teachers and administrators in secondary and primary schools, both through the international schools networks and in national systems; educational entrepreneurs, providing professional development and institutional management to the international school movement. Issues raised in the Journal will also be relevant to those in Ministries of Education, in Curriculum Development Centres and in Examination Boards throughout the world. The Journal publishes contributions in English with abstracts in English, Spanish, and French. [Journal]
This journal is available electronically at http://www.sagepub.co.uk/
Journal of Studies in International Education. In 1997, the Council on International Educational Exchange launched the Journal of Studies in International Education, a biannual publication designed to serve as a medium for noteworthy scholarship and provocative thinking about international education. [Journal] http://www.ciee.org/journal/, http://www.asie.org/articles.htm or http://www.cbie.ca/jsie.html.
- Article abstracts may be found at http://www.asie.org/abstracts.htm.
Language Learning Journal – A journal of the Association for Language Learning. This journal contains articles on the teaching and learning of languages, applied linguistics, language policy, current issues, good practice in classroom teaching. The Language Learning Journal occasionally carries articles on study abroad and language learning. http://www.all-languages.org.uk/all_language_learning_journal.htm.
Open Doors Report on International Educational Exchange - Open Doors is the only comprehensive and accurate information resource on the international students in the United States and U.S. students abroad. IIE has been conducting a survey on study abroad flows since 1985/86. For the purpose of Open Doors, study abroad is narrowly defined as only those students who received academic credit from a U.S. accredited institution of higher education after they returned from their study abroad experience. (Students who travel and take courses without credit transfers are not reported in Open Doors, nor are students who are enrolled overseas for degrees from non-U.S. institutions.) Open Doors data also reports participation rates based on ethnicity. [IIE-Open Doors/DJC]. http://opendoors.iienetwork.org/
SAFETI On-Line Newsletter. The SAFETI (Safety Abroad First - Educational Travel Information) Clearinghouse Project, develops and disseminates resources to support study abroad program development and implementation, emphasizing issues of health and safety. This is possible using a World Wide Web-based Clearinghouse format, enhancing collaboration between higher education institutions, government, and non-governmental organizations. It is funded through support by FIPSE (the Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education ) of the US Department of Education. It is a part of the Center for Global Education at the University of Southern California. [SAFETI] http://www.usc.edu/dept/education/globaled/safeti/newsletter.html
The Advising Quarterly - The Advising Quarterly is a periodical of AMIDEAST for professionals in international education worldwide, produced with partial funding from the U.S. Department of State. It provides in-depth information on U.S. education and issues related to educational exchange as well as updates on such topics as new resources, academic news, Web sites, testing, and short-term training. [Journal]. http://www.amideast.org/aq/
The Modern Language Journal - This refereed publication is dedicated to promoting scholarly exchange among teachers and researchers of all modern foreign languages and English as a second language. This Journal publishes documented essays, quantitative and qualitative research studies, response articles, and editorials that challenge paradigms of language learning and teaching. The Modern Language Journal offers 6 or 7 essays or research studies per issue, a professional calendar of events and news, a listing of relevant articles in other journals, an annual survey of doctoral degrees in all areas concerning foreign and second languages, and reviews of scholarly books, textbooks, videotapes, and software. New section of the Journal beginning in 2002 is Perspectives. This section, appearing in issues 2 and 4, will present timely professional issues for discussion through an introductory article followed by several commentaries. The first topic, appearing in 86:2, 2002, was enrollment issues in foreign language programs. The Modern Language Journal Electronic Index 1916-1996 is now available online at http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/mlj/. [Publisher]. The MLJ often publishes articles on study abroad related issues with a primary focus on foreign language acquisition. [DJC].
Transitions Abroad. A bimonthly guide to practical information on affordable alternatives to mass tourism: living, working, studying, or vacationing alongside the people of the host country. You can access study abroad related
publications, resources, program listings, and articles. [Journal] http://www.transabroad.com
Education Abroad/International Education Organizations & Related sites
Alliance for International Educational and Cultural Exchange - http://www.alliance-exchange.org/
American Council on Education (ACE) - http://www.acenet.edu/
The American Council on International Intercultural Education - http://www.aciie.org/
Association of International Education Administrators (AIEA) - http://wings.buffalo.edu/intled/aiea/
Association for the Study of Higher Education (ASHE), Council on International Higher Education/ASHE International Forum
Association for Studies in International Education (ASIE)- http://www.asie.org/intro.htm
Canadian Bureau for International Education (CBIE) - http://www.cbie.ca/
Comparative and International Education Society (CIES) - http://www.cies.ws
Council on International Educational Exchange (CIEE) - http://www.ciee.org/
European Association for International Education (EAIE) - http://www.eaie.org/
EAIE, Study Abroad and Foreign Student Advisers (SAFSA) - http://www.eaie.nl/activities/ps/SAFSA/
Forum on Education Abroad - http://www.forumea.org/
IERES - International Education RESearch - http://www.geocities.com/ieres/
Institute of International Education (IIE) – http://www.iie.org
IIE Network – http://www.iienetwork.org
International Academy for Intercultural Research (IAIR) - http://www.watervalley.net/users/academy/default.html
International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology (IACCP) – http://www.iaccp.org/
Mobility International – http://www.miusa.org
NAFSA: Association of International Educators – http://www.nafsa.org
NAFSA, Section on U.S. Students Abroad (SECUSSA) - http://www.secussa.nafsa.org/
NASPA: Student Affairs Administration in Higher Education - International Education Knowledge Community
National Center for International Education
at Missouri Southern State College - http://www.mssc.edu/ncie/
The National Society for Experiential Education (NSEE) – http://www.nsee.org
Society for Cross-Cultural Research (SCCR) - http://www.fit.edu/CampusLife/clubs-org/sccr/